Wednesday, July 21, 2010

The Islamisation of the West

BARNABAS AID JULY/AUGUST 2010
“Islam entered Europe twice and left it... Perhaps
the next conquest, Allah willing, will be by means of
preaching and ideology. The conquest need not
necessarily be by the sword... Perhaps we will
conquer these lands without armies. We want an
army of preachers and teachers who will present
Islam in all languages and in all dialects.” – Yusuf
al-Qaradawi, a popular Sunni Muslim cleric, head of
the European Council for Fatwa and Research1
Since the 1960s large numbers of Muslims have been migrating to
the West. Muslim migration is unusual because of radicals within
the community who are deliberately seeking to create dramatic
changes in their host societies; they want Islam to gain social,
cultural, economic and political power.
has been dramatic. In Western Europe, there were only about
50,000 Muslims in 1900. By 1970 the number had grown to 3-4
million, and by 2008 it exceeded 25 million. Forty percent of
Rotterdam’s population is Muslim. In Brussels the figure is 33
percent and in Marseilles and Malmo 25 percent. Muslims comprise
an estimated 20 percent of the population of inner London, 15
percent of the population in Birmingham, and 10 percent in Paris
and Copenhagen. Muhammad has become the most common name
for newborn boys in Brussels and Amsterdam, and the third most
common in England. Muslim populations are growing much faster
than non-Muslim ones. This growth is due to continued migration,
higher birth rates and conversions. Many Muslim leaders have
expressed their vision of an Islamic Europe in the foreseeable future,
achieved primarily by demographic changes.
Bernard Lewis predicted in July 2004 that Muslims would form a
majority in Europe by the end of the 21st century. He repeated his
warning in 2007, arguing that Europe is experiencing a dramatic
demographic shift coupled with a process of Islamisation.
The Islamisation of the West
Pull-out
supplement
Christianity in the UK: rising to the challenges
The Office for National Statistics found that the Muslim population
had multiplied ten times faster than the rest of society during the
period from 2004 to 2008. In 2008 the government’s Labour Force
Survey calculated that the British Muslim population in 2008 was
2.4 million.6 However, this may well be a considerable
underestimate.
Barnabas Fund has undertaken some intensive research into this
question. Embassies of Muslim states were approached and asked
for their current figures on the number of Muslims in Britain whom
they represent, and published material from government agencies
(such as the Department of Communities and Local Government)
as well as Muslim NGOs dealing with specific Muslim ethnic groups
was used. Low and high estimates were recorded, and the results
are shown in the following table:
So although the minimum figure in the table matches the
government estimate of 2.4 million, it is likely to be too low. It
would seem fair to estimate the current (2010) number of Muslims
in the UK as being certainly 3 million, most likely at least 3.2
million and possibly as many as 4.8 million.
How long has it taken for the British Muslim population to grow to
this size? In 1915 there were only 10,000 Muslims in the UK, and
the level remained low for the next four decades. The main waves
of Muslim immigrants arrived in Britain after the Second World War
and as British colonies gained independence. By 1954 there were
some 24,000 Muslims. Most of the new arrivals came from the
Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh) in search of jobs.
Later waves of immigrants included Asian Muslims evicted from
Uganda by Idi Amin in 1972. Arab Muslims from various countries
in the Middle East experiencing economic difficulties, civil war and
persecution also found refuge in Britain. Iranians fleeing the Islamic
Revolution of 1979, and later Kurds fleeing persecution in Iraq and
Turkey, joined the flow. Muslim immigrants and asylum-seekers
arrived from the Balkans during the disintegration of Yugoslavia
and from Afghanistan during its decades of war and civil strife.
Recently there has been an influx from Somalia and sub-Saharan
African countries.
The following graph shows how the Muslim community in Britain
has grown since 1915, and how the growth has accelerated
drastically in the last decade. It also gives an estimate of the
number of Muslims in Britain in the year 2020 (6 million).
Impact of Islamism
Many Muslims who settle in the West are traditionalists wanting to
recreate in their new country the Islam of their homeland. A few
are secularists who migrated in order to escape the growth of
radical Islam in their home country. Still others are Islamists who
have moved to the West with the definite plan of working for the
rule of Islam and sharia throughout the world. It is this last group
who are spearheading the process of Islamisation in the West,
although many mainstream Muslim organisations are also actively
supportive of it.
Islamism is inherently political and considers that the state powers
must be controlled by Islam. It is deeply rooted in orthodox Islam
and thus appeals greatly to many conservative and traditional
Muslim groups. Islamists have developed programmes for
BARNABAS AID JULY/AUGUST 2010 iii
6 Richard Kerbaj, “Muslim population rising 10 times faster than rest of society”, The Times, 30 January 2009.
In 2007, there were 28,300 people who applied for asylum in the
UK. In 2008 the figure was 30,545. Most asylum-seekers end up
staying in the UK, and many of them are Muslims. Making a
conservative guess that a third of asylum-seekers are Muslims an
extra 10,000 Muslims are added to the British population every
year. Because very few asylum applications are accepted, and
most applicants who stay do so illegally, the great majority of this
10,000 will not be included in embassy figures. Estimates for the
number of asylum seekers currently resident in the UK range from
620,000 to 1.1 million, who could include between 200,000 and
350,000 Muslims. There are no reliable figures for converts to
Islam, but estimates range from 10,000 to 60,000.
Pakistani-origin Muslims form by far the largest single group of
British Muslims. It is important to note that the figures from the
Pakistani High Commission cover only first-generation
Pakistani immigrants. But many Pakistani-background Britons
are now second, third and even fourth generation immigrants; a
reasonable estimate would be between 600,000 and 800,000. So
the total figure for Pakistani Muslims must be far higher than the
table indicates, perhaps between 1.5 and 2 million.
Low Estimate High Estimate
Pakistanis (1st generation immigrants only) 900,000 1,200,000
Bangladeshis 353,000 500,000
Indians 160,000 200,000
Afghans 55,000 70,000
Iranians 75,000 85,000
Turks 230,000 500,000
Arabs 250,000 400,000
North Africans 130,000 130,000
Somalis 100,000 150,000
Other Sub-Saharan Africans 70,000 300,000
European Muslims e.g. Albanians,
Kosovars
70,000 100,000
Asylum-seekers ? ?
South-East Asians ? ?
Converts to Islam ? ?
Others ? ?
2,393,000 3,635,000
? indicates that reliable figures are unavailable.
Pull-out
supplement
Christianity in the UK: rising to the challenges
The Office for National Statistics found that the Muslim population
had multiplied ten times faster than the rest of society during the
period from 2004 to 2008. In 2008 the government’s Labour Force
Survey calculated that the British Muslim population in 2008 was
2.4 million.6 However, this may well be a considerable
underestimate.
Barnabas Fund has undertaken some intensive research into this
question. Embassies of Muslim states were approached and asked
for their current figures on the number of Muslims in Britain whom
they represent, and published material from government agencies
(such as the Department of Communities and Local Government)
as well as Muslim NGOs dealing with specific Muslim ethnic groups
was used. Low and high estimates were recorded, and the results
are shown in the following table:
So although the minimum figure in the table matches the
government estimate of 2.4 million, it is likely to be too low. It
would seem fair to estimate the current (2010) number of Muslims
in the UK as being certainly 3 million, most likely at least 3.2
million and possibly as many as 4.8 million.
How long has it taken for the British Muslim population to grow to
this size? In 1915 there were only 10,000 Muslims in the UK, and
the level remained low for the next four decades. The main waves
of Muslim immigrants arrived in Britain after the Second World War
and as British colonies gained independence. By 1954 there were
some 24,000 Muslims. Most of the new arrivals came from the
Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh) in search of jobs.
Later waves of immigrants included Asian Muslims evicted from
Uganda by Idi Amin in 1972. Arab Muslims from various countries
in the Middle East experiencing economic difficulties, civil war and
persecution also found refuge in Britain. Iranians fleeing the Islamic
Revolution of 1979, and later Kurds fleeing persecution in Iraq and
Turkey, joined the flow. Muslim immigrants and asylum-seekers
arrived from the Balkans during the disintegration of Yugoslavia
and from Afghanistan during its decades of war and civil strife.
Recently there has been an influx from Somalia and sub-Saharan
African countries.
The following graph shows how the Muslim community in Britain
has grown since 1915, and how the growth has accelerated
drastically in the last decade. It also gives an estimate of the
number of Muslims in Britain in the year 2020 (6 million).
Impact of Islamism
Many Muslims who settle in the West are traditionalists wanting to
recreate in their new country the Islam of their homeland. A few
are secularists who migrated in order to escape the growth of
radical Islam in their home country. Still others are Islamists who
have moved to the West with the definite plan of working for the
rule of Islam and sharia throughout the world. It is this last group
who are spearheading the process of Islamisation in the West,
although many mainstream Muslim organisations are also actively
supportive of it.
Islamism is inherently political and considers that the state powers
must be controlled by Islam. It is deeply rooted in orthodox Islam
and thus appeals greatly to many conservative and traditional
Muslim groups. Islamists have developed programmes for
BARNABAS AID JULY/AUGUST 2010 iii
6 Richard Kerbaj, “Muslim population rising 10 times faster than rest of society”, The Times, 30 January 2009.
In 2007, there were 28,300 people who applied for asylum in the
UK. In 2008 the figure was 30,545. Most asylum-seekers end up
staying in the UK, and many of them are Muslims. Making a
conservative guess that a third of asylum-seekers are Muslims an
extra 10,000 Muslims are added to the British population every
year. Because very few asylum applications are accepted, and
most applicants who stay do so illegally, the great majority of this
10,000 will not be included in embassy figures. Estimates for the
number of asylum seekers currently resident in the UK range from
620,000 to 1.1 million, who could include between 200,000 and
350,000 Muslims. There are no reliable figures for converts to
Islam, but estimates range from 10,000 to 60,000.
Pakistani-origin Muslims form by far the largest single group of
British Muslims. It is important to note that the figures from the
Pakistani High Commission cover only first-generation
Pakistani immigrants. But many Pakistani-background Britons
are now second, third and even fourth generation immigrants; a
reasonable estimate would be between 600,000 and 800,000. So
the total figure for Pakistani Muslims must be far higher than the
table indicates, perhaps between 1.5 and 2 million.
Low Estimate High Estimate
Pakistanis (1st generation immigrants only) 900,000 1,200,000
Bangladeshis 353,000 500,000
Indians 160,000 200,000
Afghans 55,000 70,000
Iranians 75,000 85,000
Turks 230,000 500,000
Arabs 250,000 400,000
North Africans 130,000 130,000
Somalis 100,000 150,000
Other Sub-Saharan Africans 70,000 300,000
European Muslims e.g. Albanians,
Kosovars
70,000 100,000
Asylum-seekers ? ?
South-East Asians ? ?
Converts to Islam ? ?
Others ? ?
2,393,000 3,635,000
? indicates that reliable figures are unavailable.
Pull-out
supplement
Christianity in the UK: rising to the challenges
Islamising the West in stages. These include infiltrating both
Western Muslim communities and non-Muslim Western societies,
especially their power centres.
The current population explosion in Muslim countries, coupled with
the growth in the number of Muslims migrating into Western
states, is seen by many Islamists as a sign of God’s providence,
tilting the global balance in favour of Islam. They believe that
Muslims in the West must seize this unique opportunity to expand
Islam’s sphere of influence, changing Western Christian and
secular culture in favour of Islam.
Islamists want Islam to be not just an equal alongside the many
other faith communities, but to be privileged and protected, the
dominant player. Islamic norms and practices are promoted as
Muslims make their presence felt in politics, economics, law,
education and the media.
Islamists are never satisfied with what they have achieved, but use
every opportunity to ask for more. The then Bishop of Rochester,
Michael Nazir-Ali, complained that in dealing with some Muslims
“there can never be sufficient appeasement and new demands will
continue to be made”.7
Islamists have created a vast network of interlocking organisations
committed to spreading Islam in the West. These institutions are
used to lobby for Muslim causes. They are often led by welleducated
Muslims born in the West, who are able to engage
effectively with wider society.
THE ALLIANCE BETWEEN ISLAMISTS AND THE EXTREME LEFT
The fall of Soviet communism weakened the Western hard left
and forced it to look for other allies in its struggle against
capitalism and Christianity. It has developed links to radical
Islamists, many of whom take part in demonstrations against
Western governments and their policies and stir up resentment
among many Muslims. Although Islamism and the extreme left
have very different ideas and goals, they are united in their
hatred for America.
Left-wing intellectuals present a sanitised view of Islam, ignoring
its terrorist forms, playing down the place of Islamism and
emphasising the guilt of the West. They offer Islamists a privileged
platform in the media channels and academic centres that they
control, calling any criticism of Islam “Islamophobic” and thus
silencing all dissent.
ISLAMIC MISSION (DA‘WA)
Islam is a missionary faith that makes da‘wa (mission) a duty for
individual Muslims and also for Muslim communities and states.
Da‘wa has two dimensions: first, internal da‘wa aims to revive the
faith and commitment of Muslims; then external da‘wa calls on
non-Muslims to accept Islam. It is not limited to converting
individuals, but includes converting whole societies and
establishing states or enclaves ruled by Islam.
Islamist movements are dedicated to da‘wa as part of their
attempt to make Islam the dominant religion in the non-Muslim
world.. They expect Muslims in the West to witness to Islam and
persuade or force their adopted states to accept sharia law.
Islamists’ efforts in such fields as law, economics and culture are
not just small steps to meet the needs of Muslim individuals and
the local Muslim community, but are part of an overall plan to
change the character of host states until they become part of the
global Islamic umma (nation).
Islamists now encourage Muslims to make their mission more
suitable for the West. Terms and concepts that might offend Western
people are avoided. Islam is presented not as an alien religion to be
imposed on Western society by force, but as a peaceful and tolerant
religion, closely related to Christianity and dedicated to social justice
and equality. Islamists also often engage in interfaith dialogue with
Christians with the aim of promoting Islam.
Oil-rich Muslim states such as Saudi Arabia, Libya and Iran are
using their considerable resources and influence to fund and
promote a large network of Islamic mission organisations. Non-
Muslim societies and states are pressured to meet their demands.
At the same time, the threat of violence, whether terrorism or
rioting, is part of da‘wa. Western governments have to allocate vast
resources to fighting Islamist terrorism. Terrorist threats also make
governments more eager to respond positively to the requests of
their Muslim communities, hoping that this will prevent them from
becoming radicalised.
MOSQUE-BUILDING
Some observers estimate that by 2007 there were over 1,700
mosques in the UK, over 1,600 in France, over 1,200 in the US and
over 1,000 in Germany. The largest and most ornate mosques are
often funded and supported by Islamic states. The increasing
numbers of mosques, and their magnificence, speak of the
presence and permanence of Islam in the West and reflect the
growing confidence of Muslim communities.
Recently plans to build several “mega-mosques” in the UK have
caused much controversy and raised inter-communal tensions.
Muslims claim that these structures will be needed to
accommodate their growing numbers in the West. However, the
need for Muslim places of worship could be met by smaller, less
eye-catching buildings. The ambitious designs of many mosques
suggest a desire to have a very visible presence, claim superiority
for Islam, and dwarf Christian cathedrals and churches.
ISLAMIC SHARIA
Sharia law defines the faith and identity of most Muslims, who
submit to it as God’s will. Traditionalists, Islamists and modernists
all take this view, while differing on how sharia should be
understood and put into practice. In the West there is pressure to
have parts of sharia added to the secular legal system and applied
in the public sphere.
As a result of Muslim demands, various public bodies, including the
police, hospitals and the prison system, allow Muslims to follow
certain sharia regulations. Informal, voluntary sharia courts are
operating in many Muslim communities. These put Muslim women
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Christianity in the UK: rising to the challenges
in real danger of severe discrimination in matters of marriage,
divorce, custody of children and inheritance.
Important non-Muslim public figures have joined in the demand
for an increased public role for sharia. In Britain the Archbishop
of Canterbury has argued that some role for Islamic law is
unavoidable and that in order to hold society together the
country should permit Muslims to follow some parts of it. He
was followed by the Lord Chief Justice, Lord Phillips, who
argued that sharia could operate in Britain in the field of
marriage, family disputes, and finance as long as it did not
contradict the laws of the land. He also said that sharia should
be one (voluntary) basis of arbitration and mediation, which
could then be enforced by English law. Similar voices are heard
in other Western states.
THREATS TO FREE SPEECH
Islam does not separate religion from the state, and many
Muslims believe that the state should protect Islam. Muslim
institutions in the West frequently complain about Islamophobia
and demand laws to ban hate speech and insulting religion. They
are supported by Muslim states and Muslim international
organisations such as the Organisation of the Islamic Conference
(OIC), who seek to give Islam a special place in all societies. They
claim that Islam, the Qur’an, sharia and Muhammad must all be
protected from criticism, however factual the criticism might be.
In 2007 an act was passed in the UK outlawing the use of
threatening words or behaviour meant to incite hatred against
groups of people because of their faith.
Islamist organisations in the West also use the laws on libel,
human rights and equality to silence any criticism of Islam.
Large funds are set aside for hiring skilful lawyers. This
approach puts off many people who might otherwise criticise
Islam and so limits their free speech. This situation is beginning
to limit public discussion of Islam and even of the threat posed by
Islamist terrorism. It presents a real challenge to both civil rights
and national security in Western states.
The OIC and its member states are also pressurising other
countries at the UN. Since 1999 the UN Commission on Human
Rights, and its successor the UN Human Rights Council, have
passed annual resolutions criticising and opposing the defamation
of religions; one was even passed in the General Assembly in
2007. These resolutions are non-binding, but the UN has also
established a committee to work on a binding treaty against
defamation of religions.
Legal protection of this kind for individuals, including Muslims, is
acceptable to most people, but the OIC’s aim is rather to protect a
set of ideas, namely the religion of Islam, from any kind of
criticism. Moreover, although these resolutions supposedly apply to
all religions, the most recent ones have particularly singled out
Islam as needing protection.
This campaign is a first step towards changes in the law of
Western and other non-Muslim states to favour Islam. As a result
the UN is increasingly censoring its own language and inserting
terms such as “blasphemy” and “defamation of Islam” into its
documents. Non-Muslim states seem to have decided to keep quiet
about Islam. Thus freedom of speech and expression is being
limited in many international organisations and conferences.
VIOLENCE AND THE THREAT OF VIOLENCE
Some Muslims have resorted to violence and the threat of violence
to frighten governments into meeting their demands. Examples
include the riots in Oldham, UK in 2001 and in Paris in 2005. This
approach seems to be effective in the West, where governments
want to avoid riots in the streets of their cities. The Danish cartoons
of Muhammad and the riots and violence that followed prompted
many Western politicians to express sympathy with Muslim anger.
In addition, leading Western personalities, both non-Muslim and
Muslim, have been threatened, attacked or even murdered.
Examples are the fatwa against Salman Rushdie in Britain (1989);
the assassination of Theo Van Gogh (2004) in the Netherlands;
death threats against the politicians Ayaan Hirsi Ali and Geert
Wilders in the Netherlands; death threats to the Jyllands-Posten
editor Flemming Rose and cartoonist Kurt Westergaard in
Denmark; and a plot to kill cartoonist Lars Vilks in Sweden. As a
result the media, academics and publishers have also begun to
censor their own work.
PRESENTATION OF ISLAM
Islamists present Islam to the non-Muslim West as tolerant and
peaceable. They have a project to rewrite texts about Islam for
Western audiences. They present Islam and Islamic history in the
best possible light, stressing only its peaceful and pleasant
features while denying the intolerant and violent ones, not least its
many wars of expansion. They have created an atmosphere in
which it is becoming difficult for public figures to criticise Islam or
talk openly about the challenges posed by Islamism.
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Christianity in the UK: rising to the challenges IV
Islamists are also seeking to change the way that Western people
see the world (the Islamisation of knowledge). Islamic bodies have
been founded in the West to promote an Islamic way of thinking,
based on the principles of the Qur’an, the words and deeds of
Muhammad, and the ideas of Islamic civilisation. Some of these
bodies are linked to Islamist movements, while presenting a
moderate face to their Western audiences. Their academic standing
encourages some Western academics to co-operate with them.
Some Western governments are changing the language they use to
describe the Islamist terrorist threat. Terms such as “War against
terror”, “Islamic terrorism” and “Islamist terrorism” are being
abandoned, because they anger Muslims and increase tensions
with the wider Muslim world. No link may be openly made between
Islam and terrorism or radicalism. For example, in April 2010 the
US government decided to ban all mention of Islam in important
national security documents.
ISLAMIC FINANCE
Islamist movements deny that Western financial products are
consistent with sharia. So they have invented a range of
alternatives and are trying to convince other Muslims to use them.
The Western media has supported the founding of Islamic banks
and financial institutions in the West. Western governments
increasingly support the introduction of this “Islamic finance”,
hoping to attract investment from the oil-rich Middle East.
London has become the main Western centre for Islamic finance
and investment outside the Middle East. In a 2005 survey several
Islamic companies indicated that the UK was the most shariafriendly
of all the Western countries.
By accepting these Islamist interpretations of sharia as
representative of all Islam, Western governments have
strengthened Islamists, while weakening Muslim moderates and
progressives. Individual Muslims are now under increasing
pressure to use so-called “sharia-compliant” financial products.
EDUCATION
Islamists would like to control the whole of Western education.
Although the number of Muslim schools is growing, most Muslim
children attend state schools. Wherever possible, Muslims demand
that Muslim girls be allowed to wear Islamic clothing. They also
call for special prayer rooms to be set aside in schools for Muslim
prayers, for halal food to be provided, and for permission for
Muslim pupils to leave school premises for Friday prayers.
Other requests include the provision of alternatives to mixedgender
sports activities, and the exemption of Muslim pupils from
dance and drama. Where Islam is not already part of the
curriculum, there are calls to include it, preferably taught by
Muslim teachers from outside the schools. Further, some Muslims
check school textbooks and ask for any supposedly anti-Islamic
material to be removed, even if it is true. They try to vet all books
about Islam in schools, colleges, universities and public libraries,
and to influence publishers to provide textbooks that present a
positive view of Islam. Governments, educators and publishers
wanting to avoid being accused of prejudice, racism and
Islamophobia often yield to such requests.
vi BARNABAS AID JULY/AUGUST 2010
ACADEMIC CENTRES OF ISLAMIC AND MIDDLE EASTERN
STUDIES
Islamists also fund academic chairs and support Muslim academics
taking up lecturing posts in Western universities. A growing
proportion of senior staff positions in Western departments of
Islamic and Middle Eastern studies, and much of their funding, now
come from Muslim countries. But funding from Muslim sources
often has strings attached, and there is clear evidence that at some
universities the choice of teaching materials, the subject areas and
degrees offered, the recruitment of staff and advisory boards and
even the selection of students are now influenced by donors.
University staff may censor their own work so as not to offend the
donors.
RADICAL MUSLIMS AT WESTERN UNIVERSITIES
In recent decades Islamist activists have gained a larger place in
many Islamic student societies in colleges and universities. They
radicalise Muslim students, encourage separation and isolation
from the staff and non-Muslim students, and encourage female
Muslim students to wear Islamic dress. A number of Islamist
terrorists studied at Western colleges and universities.
NO-GO ZONES FOR NON-MUSLIMS?
Poverty, racism and the need for mutual support made the first
generations of Muslims in the West live close together. But more
recently this process has been encouraged by Islamists and even
by governments. It creates a growing sense of separation from
wider society and encourages young Muslims to seek their identity
in radical Islam. Extremist literature is being widely distributed in
some mosques and Islamic centres, further encouraging this
process.
An Islamic character is being imposed on many inner-city areas
where Muslim social networks are very powerful. In such areas
non-Muslims feel outnumbered and threatened by the Islamic
community. Some commentators suggest that they have become
“no-go” areas that it is dangerous for non-Muslims to enter.
CONCLUSION
Governments and the public must be made aware of the danger of
allowing Islamist activists to take over Muslim organisations and
claim to represent all Muslims. The excessive demands of Islamists
must be rejected, along with their blaming of host societies for all
the difficulties faced by Muslims. It is important that democratic
Western societies do not give up their hard-won heritage of
equality before the law, freedom of expression and freedom of
religion. It must also be made clear that tolerance must work both
ways and that threats of violence are unacceptable. Muslim
communities must try much harder to isolate and expose Islamists
who reject integration and the violent radicals among them.
For Christians the growing Islamisation of the West can be seen as
both a challenge and an opportunity to sharpen our thinking and
renew our evangelism. As we Christians see Muslim zeal,
commitment, and willingness to sacrifice, we should be driven to
repent, to pray for revival and act boldly for God in this generation.
We need to stand firm on our Biblical foundations, beware of
compromises and reach out in love to Muslims, offering them the
Gospel of salvation in Christ.

1 Yusuf al-Qaradawi on Al-Jazeera Television (Qatar), 24 January 1999, http://www.aljazeera.net/programs/shareea/articles/2001/7/7-6-2.htm, quoted in MEMRI Special
Dispatch Series, No. 447, 6 December 2002.
2 “Krekar claims Islam will win”, Aftenposten, 13 March 2006.
3 “Islamic Europe?” The Weekly Standard, 4 October 2004; “Europe Will Be Islamic By End Of This Century Says Princeton Prof”, Free Republic, 28 July 2008.
4 “UK Population”, British Council, http://www.britishcouncil.org/diversity/race_population.html, viewed 13 January 2003.
5 “British Muslims visit Cairo and Riyadh, Jan 02”, Press Release: www.bashirkhanbhai.co.uk/cl_cairovisitjan02.htm, viewed 14 January 2004.
“We’re the ones who will change you ... Just look at the development within Europe,
where the number of Muslims is expanding like mosquitoes. Every western woman in the
EU is producing an average of 1.4 children. Every Muslim woman in the same countries
are [sic’] producing 3.5 children. By 2050, 30% of the population in Europe will be
Muslim... Our way of thinking ... will prove more powerful than yours.” [Mullah Krekar, a
Kurdish Islamist radical from Iraq, who has been granted asylum in Norway2 ]
Secularism has already undermined the Judeo-Christian basis of
Western society, and this makes it easier for radical Muslims in the
West to progress towards their goal. There are also other factors
that seem to make many Westerners ashamed of their Judeo-
Christian heritage and values. These factors include guilt and
shame about two world wars, colonialism, racism and the
Holocaust.
What is happening in the West is linked to worldwide developments
in Islam. Muslims around the globe are regaining their confidence
and promoting a resurgence of Islam. Their aim is to establish
Muslim control in politics, economics and culture in every country.
In this process the Islamic world is growing more assertive and
intolerant towards the West. This resurgence of Islam and the
increasing power of Islamism (political Islam) strongly impact
Muslim communities in the West. In response, the West is
gradually changing its structures, laws and customs to suit its
Muslim communities.
MIGRATION AND DEMOGRAPHICS
Muslims are still a minority in the West; however, their growth rate
Example: the number of Muslims in Britain
The 2001 UK census found that 1,591,126 people identified
themselves as Muslims – this amounted to 2.7% of the total
population.4 However, other estimates from Muslim bodies, NGOs
and academics suggest that the real figure was much higher. In
2002 Professor M. Anwar, head of the Centre for Research in
Ethnic Relations at the University of Warwick, calculated that the
Muslim population was 1.8 million. In 2001 the Muslim Council of
Great Britain estimated that there had been 1.7 million Muslims in
the UK in 1999. In 2002 a Government sponsored delegation of
British Muslims told senior figures in Egypt that there were about 3
million Muslims in Britain.5 British Census records have also been
criticised because vast numbers of respondents have refused to
answer the question about religious affiliation. This evidence
suggests that the government is underplaying the size of the British
Muslim population.
So even though recent government estimates have shown dramatic
increases in the size of the Muslim population from their earlier
estimates, they may still vastly underestimate the true size of the
Muslim population and should therefore be treated with caution.
7 “Bishop attacks ‘Muslim hypocrisy’”, BBC NEWS, 5 November 2006.
Christianity in the UK: rising to the challenges ii

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