Wednesday, March 11, 2015

A Reformation Timetable

My notes for an adult Sunday School class at our church on 15 March 2015
1483 b Martin Luther
1486  b Arthur, Prince of Wales
1489 b Cranmer
1491 b Henry Tudor, Ignatius Loyola
1501 m Arthur and Catherine of Aragon b1485
1502 d Arthur
1503 Henry betrothed to Catherine, Wm Warham last pre-ref A o Cant..
1505 b Knox. Luther becomes monk.
1507 Luther ordained
1508 ML at Univ Wittenberg
1509 Henry king and marries Catherine b Calvin. Erasmus at Cambridge
1512 Luther DD
1514 Wolsey b1473 A of York.
1515 Wolsey cardinal and Lord Chancellor
1516 b Mary Erasmus Greek NT. More Utopia
1517 95 Theses
1518 Diet of Augsburg ML will not recant
1519 ML in disputation at Leipzig questions papal authority. Zwingli b 1484 starts Zurich reformation
1520 Loe X excommunicates ML, declared heretic, burns papal bull.
1521 Defender of the faith. ML banned from HR Empire at Diet of Worms. Starts Bible translation hidden in Wartburg.
1522 ML in Wittenberg publishes NT
1524 Mass banned Zurich
1525 ML marries Katherine b1499. Tyndale NT printed Worms
1528 Henry publicly talks of Divorce. Reformation starts Scotland with Patrick Hamilton b1504 executed
1529 Wolsey falls. More chancellor. Vienna besieged. ML and UZ dispute eucharist at Marburg
1530 Melanchthon prepares Confession of Augsburg, signed by Protestant princes
1531 Henry Supreme Head of C of E. UZ dies in battle.
1533 H m secretly to Anne Boleyn b 1501,  b Elizabeth. Cranmer Archbishop and declares 1st marriage null, Anne crowned queen. Henry excommunicated by pope.
1534 Act of Supremacy, Treasons Act .German OT. Jesuits founded
1535 All clergy must subscribe. More beheaded. Reports in of church wealth. Visitation of monasteries. JC Basel.
1536 d Catherine. Anne executed. m Jane Seymour b 1508  Pilgrimage of Grace. Cromwell b1485 Lord Privy Seal. First Suppression Act and first suppressions, 376 of them. Continue 4 years. JC Geneva. Authority of pope void in England. Calvin’s Institutes. Tyndale burned.
1537 P o Grace suppressed. b Edward d Jane
1538 JC to Strasbourg. Relics and shrines like Becket’s destroyed in southern England.
1540 m Anne of Cleves. b 1515 Annulled by parliament. m Catherine Howard b 1521 Cromwell beheaded
1541 JC Geneva
1542 Catherine H beheaded. Paul III stars Inquisition
1543 m Catherine Parr b1512 First burnings in Spain. Servetus burned in Geneva
1545 Council of Trent to 1564
1546 d Henry, ML
1549 Conformity to BCP required
1552 Second BCP
1553 d Edward and Lady Jane Grey 1554
1555 Knox to Scotland from Geneva
1156 Cranmer burned. Cardinal Pole Canterbury
1558 d Mary, JN First Blast
1559 New BCP

1564 JC dies

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More sad news from Nigeria

On Saturday/Sunday night gunmen entered the house of a retired Police officer, a Mr Jonathan in Barakin Ladi in Plateau St. killing 7 of the family.  Only a little girl survived but had a gun shot in her leg so was taken to hospital.  The motive was not clear.  Then on Monday evening a Fulani man tried to walk through a mob who were shouting but was lynched,  In reprisal a Moslem Hausa man invited a motor mechanic, a Berom man, to his house to repair his motor cycle.  He and two other Berom men were later found dead.  it was a sad tit for tat killing but it shows how much society is like a tinder box.

Joint Forces  announced that they had taken back the town of Damasak in Borno St quite near the northern border with Niger.Coalition forces claim they have retaken over 30 towns from Boko Haram control.  

However, today, Tuesday 10, another suicide bomber killed himself and 17 others in Monday Market in Maiduguri.

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Monday, March 09, 2015

Nigeria latest

You may have heard that several bombs went off in Maiduguri on Friday when 50 or more people were killed and many injured.  Having tried unsuccessfully  to overrun the city by frontal attack in January, the BH are now attacking people within the city and so creating terrible fear in everyone.  Chadian, Cameroonian and Niger forces are working with the Nigerian army but may confine themselves to the Lake Chad and border areas.  One of our friends has said the Chadians especially see BH as the enemy and are out to destroy them, whereas their own Nigerian forces can easily become compromised.  Now that BH have declared their allegiance to ISIS and the Caliphate it may make the Nigerian Government more determined to overcome them, but it will be very difficult with so many sympathisers within society.

Sadly the attacks by Fulani extremists have continued in Plateau State with Sho being attacked on Saturday.  Security forces arrived too late, but they arrested two men accusing them as suspects but that caused a riot as the villagers said they were trying to defend the village.  A village in Taraba State south of Yola/Numan was attacked on Friday.  A riot ensued at a video viewing centre resulting in at least two people being killed and many houses set on fire.  Another village in Borno near Benishek was attacked Thursday/Friday night.

With the Presidential election now less than three weeks away (March 28) let us continue to pray for the country and for Christians in particular that they will know how to vote - and that there will be an end to violence both before and after the Election.

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Thursday, March 05, 2015

Books read in March 2015

1. Reformation : Europe's House Divided 1490-1700 by Diarmaid MacCulloch

A most detailed and comprehensive work on the history and theology of both the Reformation and the Counter-reformation response. It tales on all of Europe though I found it weak on the 17th century in what the author calls the Atlantic Isles. ( Is this some new political correctness to avoid Ireland being part of the British Isles?) Post Restoration history in both England and Scotland seems too brief. There seems to be little on the Test Acts and nothing on the various Covenants nor the Covenanters. But one is certainly given a good theological understanding of the diversity between various Reformers. The author is no fan of John Calvin. Does this explain his omission of how Calvin influenced capitalism when he reformed the the traditional understanding of usury?

2. Best Kept Secret: 3 (The Clifton Chronicles) by Jeffrey Archer

I enjoy Archer and have read most of his work including the previous two books in this series. However I think he has become rather predictable and formulaic here. I found the main big story far fetched. Archer certainly shows his familiarity with elections and publishing but I think the prolonged bitter hatred of two vindictive characters here was rather over the top. Perhaps I have too soft a view of human nature.

3. The Swallows Of Kabul by Yasmina Khadra

Set in Taliban controlled Kabul and written in 2002 when these extremists controlled the city. I confess I do not understand the link between book and title and was surprised to find the author is in fact an Algerian man. But he seems well informed of the horror that was Kabul at the time. The story is well written but shocking in its horror, so bad in fact that the subject matter means I cannot give it five stars. Do not expect a happy ending.

4. Edge of Eternity (The Century Trilogy) by Ken Follett 

I have enjoyed all three volumes in this series but this one has to be an out and out left wing piece of historical fiction. The causes beloved of the left are applauded and no leader from the American right is worthy of approbation. It also seems to have been written for an American market. I recall only two passing references to British prime ministers and the only British politics seems to be the Sexual Offences Act decriminalising male homosexual acts. But some of the big events, 1961 to 1989 are covered through the lives of families in USA, USSR and East Germany. A long book. A large canvas and a good read if you do not mind the story coming from left field, liberal left that is not communist.

5. Jesus, Jihad, and Peace: A Prophetic Vision for the Middle East by Michael Youssef

The author, a Christian from Egypt, is well qualified to write on Islam and Christianity. He pulls no punches showing Islam does not mean peace but submission, submission to Allah who is not the same in his attributes as God worshipped by Christians. The West needs to wake up to the goal of the minority of Muslims, Salafist/Wahabbis who are setting the agenda of a universal caliphate, world domination. The majority of Muslims do not support their methods but remain silent out of fear. It reads all too like the Republicans in Northern Ireland during the Troubles, a comparison the author does not make for he lives in USA and his book is aimed at an American readership. I was hesitant when the cover says. 'What Bible prophecy says about world events'. But this is a balanced approach with my only criticism that he does not relate that the last days started at Pentecost and the first part of Matthew 24 is about AD70. There is helpful contrast between the beliefs and methods of Islam and Christianity as well as a clear presentation of the Christian gospel.

6. LONDON: The Information Capital: 100 maps and graphics that will change how you view the city by James Cheshire and Oliver Uberti

From fascinating serious information about London to the most trivial of trivia it is all here. Maps and charts to pour over and fascinate. This book represents the fruit of endless information gathering only possible in the electronic age. Read through it, dip into it, on the coffee table or for reference, this is a fun book.

7. Lila by Marilynne Robinson

The third novel in the Gilead books is set before the second one, Home and I was pleased to have read Home first as some references to the Boughton family and their black sheep son would have been hard to understand without Home. Lila was rescued by an old drifter woman, Doll and throughout the book Lila thinks back to he time with Doll and a group of drifters in dust bowl America. After Doll dies Lila is employed in a St Louis whorehouse then a hotel before she comes to Gilead where after living in an abandoned shack she is befriended by the old widower, Rev Ames and so begins a strange, tender love story. They marry but she can never tell him the details of her past. There is much here of beauty in love and kindness. There is exploration of themes dealing with eternity and hell also the meaning of baptism. Lila reads a lot from Ezekiel, Ames quotes Calvin, not what one finds in modern novels. Writing on sexual matters without explicit detail is refreshing. Can we look forward to more from this small Iowa town? How will the Ames boy grow up?

8. Old Thunder: A Life of Hilaire Belloc by Joseph Pearce

Belloc seems to be little remembered today except as a writer of comic verse. This biography shows how he was a foremost apologist for the Christian faith in the first half of the 20th century alongside his friend G K Chesterton. His Christianity though was decidedly Roman Catholic and he was influential in leading many of his friends, well known names, into that church. It was therefore amusing to read that he had a son who alienated from his father called an adopted child Martin Luther to irritate Belloc. Belloc's much loved wife died in her forties and he lost his eldest and youngest sons in the two World Wars so he was a man acquainted with grief. He was judged the finest orator of his  day and had a huge and varied literary output. He said he only wrote because he needed the money but one of his passions was to retell English history without what he regarded as its innate Protestant bias. He was a larger than life character loving beer, wine, Sussex, his native France, travel and sailing, but above all his Church.

9. Dark Fire (The Shardlake Series) by C. J. Sansom 

This is the first Shardlake story I have read and it will not be the last. I enjoy historical fiction and detective stories and here you have both. In fact there are two stories of detection in this volume. The author does make Tudor London come alive. His characters are well drawn. Plenty of mystery and excitement .Knowing that Cromwell is to fall hangs like a sword of Damocles over the story. I look forward to more about Shardlake.

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Sunday, February 22, 2015

Nigeria update

Sadly the troubles continue with a vengeance.  Boko Haram are still at large and active, there have been more Fulani attacks on Plateau villages and now sectarian/political killings are adding to the growing death toll.  Almost every day we get news from our source of another atrocity.

11/2/15 An incident in the Muslim area of Jos where a taxi knocked over a Christian motor cyclist quickly turned into a riot where a number of Christian homes were attacked and set on fire.  This incident shows that towns and cities like Jos are a tinder box where the slightest incident can spark off a riot, either by muslims or non muslims, or one political group against another.

15/2 a female suicide bomber killed herself and 7 others, injuring 10 more in Damaturu, capital of Yobe State.

15/2 gunmen killed the LGA Chairman of the Action Peoples Congress (APC - the main contender in opposition to Goodluck Jonathan of PDP) in Barakin Ladi in Plateau State.  His wife was also shot but survived and is receiving treatment in hospital.  Our source made the comment that a number of supporters of PDP have switched their allegiance to APC  

16/2 The Nigerian Army said they’d recaptured the town of Monguno in Borno and Baga and Baga Dorowa on the edge of Lake Chad have been re-taken from BH..

17/2 Boko Haram attacked an army post inside the Cameroon border.

17/2  Fulani militants attacked Mongul village near Kantoma in Mangu LGA Plateau State and around Lambal near Gana Ropp in B/Ladi LGA.  Several were killed and houses destroyed.  No villager right across the Plateau feels safe.

18/2  Fulani militants attacked Kassa community in B/Ladi killing a man and his wife and injuring 3 others.

19/2  A ‘space bus’ (not sure what this is but it may be one used for political campaigning) was found burnt out with 5 bodies inside.  That was near the Bisichi junction on Jos/BLadi road.

21/2 B Haram attacked Gatamwarwa and 2 other villages in Chibok area, Borno State.  As the Nigerian Army gets control of the northern part of Borno so BH are terrorising the southern part.  Over 30 people are said to have been killed, churches razed and houses destroyed.

22/2 A bomb blast was reported at the GSM market in Potiskum today, the second attack on this market.  Casualties are not known yet.

This is the most critical time for Nigeria as the country moves towards the Presidential election on March 28.  Urgent prayer is needed. 

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Thursday, February 05, 2015

Puritan Names

Most of these are courtesy of the 1888 book by Charles Bardsley, Curiosities of Puritan Nomenclature.
20 Puritan Names That Are Utterly Strange
  1. Dancell-Dallphebo-Mark-Anthony-Gallery-Cesar. 
  2. Praise-God. 
  3. If-Christ-had-not-died-for-thee-thou-hadst-been-damned. 
  4. Fear-God. 
  5. Job-raked-out-of-the-ashes
  6. Has-descendents
  7. Wrestling
  8. Fight-the-good-fight-of-faith
  9. Fly-fornication
  10. Jesus-Christ-came-into-the-world- to-save. 
  11. Thanks
  12. What-God-will
  13. Joy-in-sorrow. 
  14. Remember
  15. Fear-not. 
  16. Experience
  17. Anger
  18. Abuse-not
  19. Die-Well.
  20. Continent. 
12 of the Cruelest Puritan 
  1. Humiliation. 
  2. Fly-debate
  3. No-merit. 
  4. Helpless
  5. Reformation
  6. Abstinence
  7. More-triale
  8. Handmaid
  9. Obedience
  10. Forsaken
  11. Sorry-for-sin. 
  12. Lament
12 Strangely Pleasant Puritan Names
  1. Silence
  2. Creedence
  3. Dust
  4. Diffidence
  5. Desire. 
  6. Make-peace. 
  7. Ashes
  8. Tace. 
  9. Placidia
  10. Kill-sin. 
  11. Freegift
  12. Vanity
10 of the Sweetest Puritan Names
  1. Jolly
  2. Liberty. 
  3. Tenacious
  4. Happy
  5. Felicity. 
  6. Hope. 
  7. Prudence. 
  8. Amity. 
  9. Verity. 
  10. Trinity. 

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Tuesday, February 03, 2015

Books read in February 2015

1. Pioneering for Christ in the Sudan  by Johanna Veenstra

Johanna Veenstra arrived in Nigeria in 1920, aged 25, to work with the Sudan United Mission. Her missionary career was a mere 13 years, but that was much longer than many of her contemporaries. This book was written during her second home leave. She pioneered a work among a cannibal tribe 75 miles from Ibi on the Benue. Her work was evangelistic, medical and educational. The land and people were primitive. Land transport was on foot or bicycle. Big game abounded. Johanna was the first missionary to Nigeria from the Christian Reformed Church of North America. A very brave, spiritual woman. Converts came slowly. The mission required at least two years between profession of faith and baptism. Polygamy posed huge problems. The church, not the missionaries chose to be teetotal. A fascinating book about a much loved saint. She was a giant pioneer missionary.

2. Expendable Mary Slessor by James Buchan

From mill girl in the slums of Dundee to a 49 year missionary career in and near Calabar, this was one very remarkable woman. She went alone to a very violent inland tribe, going where no man, black or white would dare go. She preceded Pax Britanica and brought Pax Mary Slessor by the grace of God and sheer bravery. 'Courage is only the conquering of fear by faith' she said. She was eventually made British vice-consul to this tribe, the first such appointment of a woman in all the British Empire. She rescued hundreds of twins from death and intervened to protect many people from brutal native punishments. She ate only local food supplemented by tea. She would go barefoot, bareheaded and with skimpy dress which scandalised other Europeans. She became fluent in the Efik tongue, expert on African life and customs. She educated and healed many. There was no-one like her. In her later years, chronically ill, she received widespread fame and her funeral in Calabar was like a state occasion. She had loved and respected Africans giving her health and life for them.

3. Nigerian harvest;: A Reformed witness to Jesus Christ in Nigeria, West Africa, in the twentieth century, including a detailed history of the ... in the Benue Province from 1940 to 1970 by Edgar H Smith

The author, a British missionary seconded to the mission of the Christian Reformed Church of North America, wrote this comprehensive history of the work of CRC missionaries in Nigeria. At times there is a most interesting narrative of pioneer mission and church development but a lot of the book is much less interesting, detailing the CRC agreeing to start official work in Nigeria following several of its members working there for the Sudan United Mission. Relations between CRC and SUM are recorded at length as well as relations with the Dutch Reformed Church Mission from South Africa. The CRC was progressively taking over DRCM work when all South African work was forced to transfer in the early sixties due to South Africa's politics. The CRC as a result finished up working with two different Nigerian denominations though they are in close fellowship together. An interesting and detailed account of church planting and other mission work in central Nigeria.

4. Ealing: A Concise History by Jonathan Oates and  Peter Hounsell 

It does what it says in the title. Ealing though is not the present London borough but the area defined by W5 and W13 postal districts.. It recounts the history from before 1601 to the present day. It is fairly comprehensive and one does get a good feel for the growth of Ealing.

5. Samira and Samir: The Heartrending Story of Love and Oppression in Afghanistan by Siba Shakib

I have often read factual accounts and judged them stranger than fiction. Here is what purports to be a true story which I find incredible. I confess that what I know of Afghanistan concerns urban life in and around Kabul. This is life among the Hazaras of the mountains. I know the Hazaras are despised for they are Shi'as. The Islam here seems very syncretistic and impure. I found the style of writing difficult. Why the name avoidance with some people given descriptions not names? All in all I found this book hard going and too far fetched.

6. Born Under a Million Shadows by Andrea Busfield

Written from the viewpoint of a ten year old Afghan boy this novel is set in pot-taliban Afghanistan. The boy's father and brother have been killed and his sister abducted by the Taliban. His mother is saved from a life of poverty by being employed in the Kabul home of three single expatriates. Afghan life is well portrayed as is the boy's shock at the expatriates' lifestyles. One expat has fallen for a very wealthy Afghan. Is he a drug lord? A lot of the book is a romantic novel concerning these two disparate people. This is a story with happy endings. Perhaps that is where its Afghan realism falls short.

7. Afghanistan, Where God Only Comes To Weep by Siba Shakib 

Another horrific testimony from the strife of Afghanistan. This appears to be a true story, the biography of an Afghan woman through the end of the monarchy, the Russian invasion and the war to repel them, the Muhjadeen's civil war and the rule of the Taliban. The scene shifts from rural ares to Kabul then escape to a refugee camp on the border into Pakistan. After rape, murder and arson in the camp the family find shelter with Hazaras in the Hindu Kush mountains. Then after being in a opium growing village they move to Iran. At first Iran is good for Afghans but then it turns unfriendly so the family go back to an Afghanistan refigee camp. From there it is Isfahan than Kabul and finally to family members fighting with the Northern Alliance against the Taliban. On the way there are severe injuries, prison, suicide attempt, mines and opium addiction. Not a happy story but that sadly is the life in Afghanistan.

8. The King's Curse by Philippa Gregory 

The Tudor story from the time of Arthur, Henry VII's eldest son through to the death of Thomas Cromwell told from the perspective of Margaret Plantaganet, loyal friend of Catherine of Aragon and companion to her daughter Mary. This is very much history from a Roman Catholic perspective. Henry VIII is shown falling from his people's favoured prince to an obese, unpredictable tyrant. Cromwell is a ruthless destroyer of the old order. There are no good words for Reformation. The fall of Margaret and her family comes about from their involvement with her son Reginald, who sponsored by the king to be a learned scholar, denounces his patron's divorce and alienation from Rome. He later became Mary Tudor's archbishop of Canterbury.

9. Americanah by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

I found this to be an account of rather unattractive people. Her Nigerian immigrants are ready to try and cheat the systems to make it in USA or England. There is more detail about life in USA for that is where the author studied. The preoccupation with race is frankly boring, but then I am white. But to go on about race in America and never touch on tribalism in Nigeria is unbalanced. Interestingly their is little about race in England, nothing about Nigerian /Caribbean tensions. Her rich Lagosians are an unattractive crowd. Gullible Nigerian Christianity is well portrayed. I am thankful that the Nigerians I know show better morality than is portrayed here.

10.  Islam Today: A Short Introduction to the Muslim World by Akbar S. Ahmed 

My copy is an earlier edition published in 1999 so it is dated. It is helpful with history, beliefs and practice of Islam and shows how diverse it is yet I cannot help think the author is giving a favourable, public relations view of Islam. When he writes on Mohammed's wives he omits his child bride. When he writes on marriage he tells us polygamy is almost unknown among his people. This may be so in SE Asia but in Sub-saharan Africa, Islam promotes Islamic polygamy as authentically African. Post 9/11 the world is a different place and relations between the West and Islam are much changed. So too is the behaviour of Muslim minorities in the West. To cite the fifty or so Muslims in Stornoway as a paragon of integrated and peaceful living is rather laughable. Stormoway itself is a cultural anomaly in godless Europe.

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February 3: David Brainerd

by davidtmyers
The Author and Finisher of Our Faith
We turn now to the devotional diary of David Brainerd, the Presbyterian missionary of the middle eighteenth century.  What could account for the zeal which this early missionary showed as he traveled, not by modern conveyance but on  horseback? His travels did not take him by established thoroughfares, but rather on frontier trails through forests and across swollen rivers.  These areas were safe, when you stop to think of it, as hostile forces and wild animals were sure to block his way.  What could prompt an individual to undertake such an arduous journey?
As we look at his diary for February 3, 1744,we ascertain at least several strong reasons for his constant ministry.  Read his words and see if you can glean the answer.  He wrote:
“Enjoyed more freedom and comfort than of late; was engaged in meditation upon the different whispers of the various powers and affections of a pious mind exercised with a great variety of dispensations, and could not but write, as well as meditate on so entertaining a subject.  I hope the Lord gave me some true sense of divine things this day, but alas, how great and pressing are the remains of indwelling corruption!  I am now more sensible than ever, that God alone is ‘the author and finisher of faith,’ i.e. that the whole and every part of sanctification, and every good word, works, or thought, found in me, is the effect of his power and grace, that ‘without him I can do nothing,’ in the strictest sense, and that ‘he works in us to will and to do of his own good pleasure,’ and from no other motives.  Oh! how amazing it is that people can talk so much about men’s power and goodness, when if God did not hold us back every moment, we should be devils incarnate! This is my bitter experience, for several days last past, and has abundantly taught me concerning myself.”
If you carefully meditate on this diary entry, you cannot help but see the place of Scripture permeating his thoughts.  He quotes portions of Hebrews 12:2John 15:5, and Philippians 2:13 in this section.  In other words,  he lived and breathed Scripture!
David Brainerd also had a practical understanding of the work of sanctification in his soul, and understood the remnants of sin within himself.  Thus, with a true sense of himself, but more importantly, a true understanding of his God, he could move forward each day to do the work of evangelism and discipleship among the native population to whom God had called him.
Words to Live By: “How amazing it is that people can talk so much about men’s power and goodness, when if God did not hold us back every moment, we should be devil’s  incarnate.” — David Brainerd

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Sunday, February 01, 2015

Maiduguri today

A correspondent alerted us to another attack being made on Maiduguri this morning.  It started around 3am.  He also said that female soldiers were being evacuated which is alarming.  

BBC World - Africa service also carried the news of the attack.

Then during church this morning around 11.30 a text came from M’guri to say bombing, rockets and shooting was going on, and he said the vibrations were felt in the church building as they worshipped.  It also said the attack was launched from the Molai side of the city and that stray bullets had killed several people in their homes.
Another report said the city was attacked on four sides.

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Friday, January 30, 2015

January 30: “We Don’t Have Forever,” by Dr. Francis Schaeffer (198

by archivist
This day, January 30, marks the birth of Francis August Schaeffer, in 1912.
schaeffer02Dr. Schaeffer began his ministry with the Bible Presbyterian Church, was later a minister in the Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod, and when that denomination was received into the PCA, spent his final few years, from 1982 until his death in 1984, affiliated with the PCA. Dr. Schaeffer was the featured speaker at the 1980 "Consultation on Presbyterian Alternatives" sponsored by the Presbyterian Church in America. His counsel, excerpted here from the full transcript of his Pittsburgh messages, was heard by participants from several Presbyterian communionsAdmittedly another long post today, but please save it to read tomorrow if you don't have time today.

"We Don't Have Forever."

Two biblical principles must be practiced simultaneously, at each step of the way, if we are to be really Bible-believing Christians.  One is the principle of the practice of the purity of the visible church.  The other is the principle of an observable love among all true Christians.
Those of us who left the old Presbyterian Church USA (the "Northern" Church) 44 years ago made mistakes which marked the movement for years to come.  The second principle often was not practiced. In particular we often failed to manifest an observable love for the fellow believers who stayed in that denomination when others of us left.
Things were said which are very difficult to forget even more than 40 years later.  The periodicals of those who left tended to spend more time attacking the real Christians who stayed in the old denomination than in dealing with the liberals.  Those who came out at times refused to pray with those who had not come out.  Many who left totally broke off all forms of fellowship with true brothers in Christ who did not come out.
What was destroyed was Christ's command to love each other.  And what was left was often a turning inward, a self-righteousness, a hardness, and, too often, a feeling that withdrawal had made those who came out so right that anything they did could be excused.
Further, having learned these bad habits, they later treated each other badly when the new groups had minor differences among themselves.
We cannot stress both of the principles simultaneously in the flesh.  Sometimes we stress purity without love.  Or we can stress love without purity.  In order to stress both simultaneously we must look moment to moment to the work of Christ and to the work of the Holy Spirit.  Without this, a stress on purity becomes hard, proud, and legalistic.  Without this, a stress on love becomes compromise. Spirituality begins to have real meaning in our lives as we begin to exhibit (and the emphasis here is on exhibit, not just talk) simultaneously the holiness of God and the love of God.  Without our exhibition of both, our marvelous God and Lord is not set forth.  Rather, a caricature is set forth and He is dishonored.
We paid a terrible price for what happened in those early days.  As some of you now come out of your denominations, please do learn from our mistakes.  Each pastor, each congregation must be led by the Holy Spirit.  If some disappoint you, do not turn bitter.
One of the joys of my life occurred at the Lausanne Congress (the 1974 International Congress on World Evangelization in Lausanne, Switzerland). Some men from the newly formed Presbyterian Church in America asked me to attend a meeting they and others had called there. When I arrived I found that it was made up of Southern men who had just left the Presbyterian Church US to form the PCA and some Christians who were still in the PCUS. Someone from each side spoke. Both said to me that the meeting was possible because of my voice and especially my little book, The Church Before the Watching World (published by InterVarsity Press). I must say I could have wept, and perhaps I did. It is possible for us to do better than we would naturally do. It is not possible if we ignore the fleshly dangers and fail to look to our living Lord for his strength and grace.
Those of us who left our old denomination in the Thirties had another great problem, as I see it. It was confusion over where to place the basic chasm which marks off who we are. Does that chasm mark us as those who are building Bible-believing churches and that on this side of the chasm we hold the distinctives of being Presbyterian and Reformed? Or is the primary chasm that we are Presbyterian and Reformed and that we are divided from all who are not? The answer makes a great deal of difference.
When we go to a town to start a church, are we going there with the primary motivation to build a church which is loyal to Presbyterians and the Reformed faith, or are we going there to build a church which will preach the Gospel which historic, Bible-believing Christianity holds, and then on this side of that chasm teach that which we believe is true to the Bible in regard to church government and doctrine? The difference makes a difference to our mentality, to our motivation, and to the breadth of our outreach. I must say, to me one view is catholic, biblical and gives good promise of success; the other is introverted and self-limiting, yes, and sectarian. I spoke of a good promise of success. I mean on two levels: First in church growth and a healthy outlook among those we reach; second, in providing leadership in the whole church of Christ.
We alone do not face this problem of putting the chasm at the wrong place, of course. A too zealous mentality on the Lutheran view of the sacraments is the same. A too sectarian mentality in regard to the mode of baptism is another. The zeal of the Plymouth Brethren for an unpaid ministry is often the same. No, it is not just our problem. But it is our problem. To put the chasm in the wrong place is to fail to fulfill our calling, and I am convinced that when we do so we displease our Lord.
Those who remain in the old-line churches have their own set of problems. In contrast to the problem of hardness to which those who withdraw are prone, those who remain are likely to develop a general latitudinarianism. One who accepts ecclesiastical latitudinarianism easily steps into a cooperative latitudinarianism which can become a doctrinal latitudinarianism and especially a letdown on a clear view of Scripture.
This is what happened in certain segments of what I would call the evangelical establishment. Out of the evangelical latitudinarianism of the Thirties and Forties grew the letdown in regard to the Scripture in certain areas of the evangelical structure in the Seventies. Large sections of evangelicalism today put all they can into acting as though it makes no real difference as to whether we hold the historic view of Scripture or the existential view. The existential methodology says that the Bible is authoritative when it teaches "religious'' things but not when it touches that which is historic, scientific, or such things as the male/female relationship.
Not all who have stayed in the liberal denominations have done this, by any means, but it is hard to escape.  I don't see how those who have chosen to stay in (no matter what occurs) can escape a latitudinarian mentality which will struggle to paper over the differences on Scripture in order to keep an external veneer of unity.  That veneer in fact obscures a real lack of unity on the crucial point of Scripture.  And when the doctrinal latitudinarianism sets in we can be sure from all of church history and from observation in our own period of church history that in just a generation or two the line between evangelical and liberal will be lost.
This is already observable in that the liberals largely have shifted to the existential methodology and have expressed great approval that the "moderate evangelicals" have done so.  The trend will surely continue.  Unless we see the new liberalism with its existential methodology as a whole, and reject it as a whole, we will, to the extent to which we tolerate it, be confused in our thinking.  Failure to reject it will also involve us in the general relativism of our day and compromising in our actions.
The second major problem of those who stay in the liberally controlled denominations is the natural tendency to constantly move back the line at which the final stand will be taken.  For example, can you imagine Clarence Macartney, Donald Grey Barnhouse or T. Roland Phillips being in a denomination in which the battle line was the ordination of women?  Can you imagine these great evangelical preachers of the Twenties and Thirties (who stayed in the Presbyterian Church USA) now being in a denomination which refuses to ordain a young man whose only fault was that while he said he would not preach against the ordination of women yet he would not say he had changed his mind that it was unbiblical? Can you imagine that these leaders of the conservative cause in an earlier era would have considered it a victory to have stalled the ordination of practicing homosexuals and practicing lesbians?  What do you think Macartney, Barnhouse, and Phillips would have said about these recent developments?  Such a situation in their denomination would never have been in their minds as in the realm of conceivable.
The line does move back.  In what presbytery of the Northern Presbyterian Church can you bring an ordained man under biblical discipline for holding false views of doctrine and expect him to be disciplined?
Beware of false victories.  Even if a conservative man is elected moderator of the general assembly (as Macartney was in 1924), it would amount to absolutely nothing.  Despite the jubilation among conservatives at Macartney's election, the bureaucracy simply rolled on, and not too many years later conservative leader J. Gresham Machen could be unfrocked.  Nelson Bell was elected moderator of the Southern Church later (in 1972), and nothing changed.  The power centers of the bureaucracy and the liberally-controlled seminaries were unmoved.
There are always those who say, "don't break up our ranks ... wait a while longer ... wait for this ... wait for that." It is always wait.  Never act. But 40 years is a long time to wait when things are always and consistently getting worse.  And (with my present health problem) I tell you soberly, we do not have forever to take that courageous and costly stand for Christ that we sometimes talk about. We do not have forever for that. We hear many coaxing words, but watch for the power structure to strike out when it is threatened. If the liberals' power is really in danger or if they fear the loss of property, watch out!
What of the future? We live in a day that is fast-moving.  The United States is moving at great speed toward totally humanistic orientation in society and state.  Do you think this will leave our own little projects, our own church, and our own lives untouched?  Don't be silly. The warnings are on every side. When a San Francisco Orthodox Presbyterian congregation can be dragged into court for breaking the law of discrimination because it dismissed an avowed, practicing homosexual as an organist, can we be so blind as to not hear all the warning bells go off?  When by a ruling of a federal court the will of Congress can be overturned concerning the limitation on the willful killing of unborn children, should not the warning bells go off as to the kind of pressures ahead of us?
Who supports these things?  The liberal denominations do, publicly, formally, and financially.  And it puts into a vise those of us who stand for biblical morality, let alone doctrine.  Beyond the denominations, it is their councils of churches that support not only these things but also terrorist groups. They give moral support and money.  Should we support this by our denominational affiliation? We may seem isolated from the results for a time but that is only because we are too blind to see.
I don't think we have a lot of time.  The hour is very late, but I don't think it is too late in this country. This is not a day of retreat and despair.  In America it is still possible to turn things around.  But we don't have forever.

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Thursday, January 29, 2015


-Niamey Boukoki II: The church rented 2 tents and 200 chairs for the service on Sunday. The government provided two policemen for security. It was amazing--with many remembering the church's humble beginnings 30 years ago when only a mud hut existed on the property. Worship was without electronic or any other kind of music instruments--just like when the EERN started at its begining. The pastor preached and church ended in joy. 

-Niamey Harobanda: The church was not burnt but the demonstrators brought all the musical instruments and other materiels in the building to the outside and burned them. So there were some iron banches left but they are not suffisant for worship. Children had to sit on mats but the church had a very good service, although without any music. They reported that the police came for a while but they left before the end of the service, as there were no threat at all. 
-Zinder : The members swept the burnt sanctuary and borrowed 40 chairs from the EERN Primary school for the service. They had a wonderful worship without music too. The Police were at the gate to provide security. 
-Mirriah : The pastor came back to his damaged house (attacked by the mobs). The family swept it and then brought back the church benches that their muslim friend had helped them to hide before the arrival of the crowd on the 16th. The atmosphere was described as somber since people still seemed to be traumatised. One policeman was sent there to provide security. 
-Magaria : They reported having the best service they have ever had (It was quite joyful though there was no music). There weren't any security provided by officials. In a nearby village where Christians were so afraid last week that they fled when the EERN President's car approached them, we received an amazing report: even those who had previously stopped attending the church services came last sunday and many Muslims attended too. This area is known as the most extremist in the country.

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Wednesday, January 28, 2015

Nigeria - latest from Voice of the Persecuted

Voice of the Persecute By Michael Ireland, Senior Reporter, ASSIST News Service
(ANS-TRENTON, MI, Jan.27, 2015) -- Voice of the Persecuted (VOP) reports that Boko Haram recently released a new video threatening all of Northeast Africa. 
In a blog posting at VOP says several threats were made against, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad. 
Chuck Refsland, VOP Advocate/News Analyst, Voice of the Persecuted, writes: “Threats made by the leader showcasing their huge array of weapons, and trumpeting their pride in how far they have come ‘from machetes and sticks’ to now, trumpeting that they would rule. Their recent violence in Niger inciting protests against a cartoon have sent significant shockwaves through the Christian Communities. Image after image of Christians continuing to worship in darkness show a contrast to the fear that this murderous group is attempting to instill in the world. But the reality is that while the world remains silent, the Black flag of Islam is controlling large swath’s of land. Larger than the world can imagine.” 
nigerian christiansCiting a report from Abuja by Agenzia Fides news outlet, Refsland writes: “Boko Haram tried to enter Maiduguri twice last weekend: the first time on Friday 23 and the second yesterday, Sunday, 25 January,” says to Agenzia Fides His Exc. Mgr. Oliver Dashe Doeme, Bishop Maiduguri, capital of Borno State, in northern Nigeria where the Boko Haram fighters tried to enter after having taken possession of other cities in the north-east of the Country. 
“The guerrillas of Bolo Haram were rejected by the military and the civilian militia that defend the city. The fights were very intense. Boko Haram has lost several men. At the moment the situation in Maiduguri appears calm,” says to Fides Mgr. Doeme, who states that he is in Damaturu (Yobe State capital, whose territory falls within the diocese presided over by the Bishop) on a pastoral visit, although his collaborators keep him constantly updated on the situation in Maiduguri. 
“We find ourselves in a very dangerous and difficult moment” continues the Bishop. “We risk seeing Boko Haram conquer the entire north-east before the end of the election, unless foreign troops intervene,” said Mgr. Doeme, referring to the presidential elections to be held in mid-February and to the coordination of the military actions of neighboring Countries against Boko Haram, after the latest raids of Nigerian extremists in Cameroon and the conquest of the base of the international force of Baga, on the shores of Lake Chad (see Fides 01/09/2015). 
“The situation is very complex and the first victims are innocent civilians,” concluded the Bishop of Maiduguri who implies the existence of some “saboteurs” and accomplices within the Nigerian army, who favor the advance of Boko Haram for political reasons. (L.M.) (Agenzia Fides 01/26/2015) 
Refsland says that a recent report by CNN gained a lot of criticism for portraying the government’s lack of concern, care and support of the military. He writes: “They spoke with soldiers and wives of soldiers, and their report shows soldiers having to buy their own uniforms, equipment and health care. Widows of soldiers are ignored, with the government refusing to hear their pleas.” 
Click here to watch the video from CNN. 
“It’s eye opening. We also were skeptical, so we sent it to someone on the ground there,” writes Refsland, adding: “And sadly they confirmed this was true, saying there are many women in the same situation. Their husbands missing or killed, and the government refusing to open their cases. Many women and children abandoned from a government their husbands swore to defend. Many innocents on the run from Boko Haram finding little comfort. One critic of the above said that the media here in America wouldn’t dare to call out our military in that manner, but yet we have. We have repeatedly called out our government for the way our veterans and their families are treated.” 
boko haram sattelite vertRefsland writes that Boko Haram has devastated large areas of land, “Right under the noses of the African Government and military.” 
He asks: Just how much territory do they control? “It’s been said that Boko Haram alone controls land the size of Belgium. How could this happen? How could the world allow this cancer to spread? They seem to have underestimated the super highway that has been constructed right under their noses. By uniting with ISIS, Al-shabob, Al-queda, Hezbollah, Hamas, (the) Taliban and Iran they have created this super highway of terror that reaches from Iran to the coast of Africa. They are receiving funding and weapons with their own network of alliances that rival NATO. That’s not hyperbole or an understatement.”  
While previewing one video for truth, Refsland said Voice of the Persecuted was told that one way for the Boko Haram to obtain weapons was to attack military bases where they receive intelligence from their connections in the military. “Until the world realizes the scope of the magnitude of what is happening these groups will thrive. Again, their weapons, their intelligence, their support rivals that of NATO. They have created this mammoth network all across the Middle East and Africa. Look at Yemen how quickly the government fell.” 
Despite all the violence, Christianity continues to grow in Nigeria, Refsland stated. “The numbers of Christians in Nigeria has grown from 21.4% in 1953 to 49.3% in 2010. Their faith is strengthened in the face of tribulation. What is heartbreaking is the numbers of displaced. Refugee camps are growing.” 
World Watch Monitor quotes a Nigerian Cleric in a story titled: What ISIS has done in Iraq, Boko Haram is doing in Nigeria.
World Watch Monitor also tells of the plight and anger of Christians at the Government’s inability to care for or protect them.
refugee camp nigeriaHe cites World Watch Monitor which reports the Chairman of the Christian Association of Nigeria for the North Central Zone, Daniel Kadzai, said Christians in the north have lost confidence in the government’s ability to deal with the crisis. 
“The Federal Government has toyed with the lives and limbs of the Christians in Northern Nigeria for political gains. There is no explanation the government can give as to why the Federal troops will run away from the towns prior to the attack on such towns by Boko Haram without putting up any resistance, if the government does not have a hand in the whole genocide on Northern Christians as is being speculated in the local and foreign media,’’ Kadzai said. 
According to the Voice of the Persecuted weblog, citing World Watch Monitor, the Church of the Brethren in Nigeria (EYN), based mainly in the northern part of the country, is the worst affected by the insurgency. Information released during the protest shows that the church has suffered heavy losses and damages over the 5 years of Boko Haram insurgency. Over 8,000 of their members have been killed, while more than 700,000, mostly women and Children have been displaced and now scattered in places like Jos, Abuja, Kaduna and Yola. Some 270 churches have been razed completely by the insurgents. Nigeria is ranked fourth on the Global Terrorism Index (GTI) for 2013, issued by the Institute for Economics and Peace. According to the index, more than 80 per cent of the lives lost to terrorists occurred in five countries – Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nigeria and Syria. The institute says Boko Haram is one of the four most-active militant organizations along with the Islamic State (otherwise known as ISIS), the Taliban and al Qaeda.
Refsland concludes: “So you begin to see the magnitude of what is transpiring in Nigeria. Why are the cries of the innocents unheeded? We would like to know the answer to that. Although recent attacks are ever stronger, the condemnation from world leaders and the UN are not. No aid, no help, and nothing to stop the rampage. Pray for Nigeria.”
Photo One: Nigerian Christians express thewir anger (Courtesy World Watch Monitor).
Photo Two: Boko Haram's expanding reach (Photo from CNN screenshot).
Photo Three: The United Nations refugee camp in northern Cameroon (Courtesy Workld Watch Monitor).

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Wednesday, January 21, 2015

January 21: Francis Makemie and Freedom of Speech

by Dr. David W. Hall.
Rev. Francis Makemie on Trial before Lord CornburyOne illustration of how religion and politics were interwoven, especially the religion and politics of strongly Scottish Calvinist sentiment, can be seen from the experience of Ulster Presbyterian missionary Francis Makemie (b. 1658). Makemie had been reared on tales of the Scottish rebellion that adopted the Solemn League and Covenant, and he was educated at the University of Glasgow one generation after Samuel Rutherford.  Commissioned by the Presbytery of Laggan, a fiercely Calvinistic stronghold, the first Presbyterian minister on the North American continent landed on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay in 1683. Over time, he earned a reputation as a threat to the Anglicans in the area, and he was reported to the Bishop of London (who never had authority over Makemie) to be a pillar of the Presbyterian sect. His work was commended by Puritan giant Cotton Mather, and his correspondence with Increase Mather indicates considerable commonality of purpose among early American Calvinists. Cotton Mather would later recommend a Catechism composed by Makemie for his New England churches.
Makemie organized at least seven Presbyterian churches committed to the Westminster Confession of Faith and Scottish ecclesiastical order between 1683-1705. In between the organizing of churches along Scottish models—the Scottish League and Covenant seemed to be blossoming in America, perhaps more than in its native Scotland—Makemie served as a pastor in Barbados from 1696 to 1698. He also sheltered persecuted Irish Calvinist ministers from 1683-1688. Following the Glorious Revolution in 1688 the need for shelter in America diminished, and some of these religious refugees returned to Ireland and Scotland. Makemie, however, remained in America, found a wife, and continued organizing Presbyterian congregations throughout Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. In a 1699 letter, Makemie still spoke reverentially of Geneva as a Calvinist center.
Ministers from the Church of England protested Makemie’s church planting, caricaturing his ministry as subversive and nonconformist. Eventually the Sheriff of Long Island at the behest of the British Governor of New York, Lord Cornbury arrested Makemie and another Presbyterian colleague, John Hampton, for preaching without a license by. On January 21, 1707, the warrant for their arrest charged them with spreading “their Pernicious Doctrine and Principles” in Long Island without “having obtained My License for so doing, which is directly contrary to the known laws of England.”
Cornbury’s oppressiveness was well known from several earlier cases, and Makemie realized that if freedom of religion were not granted in one colony, America would never have the kind of free expression needed. He may have viewed New York as a mission for religious freedom; en route to Boston from New Jersey, he could have simply avoided Cornbury’s territory. In what would become one of the earliest tests of freedom of speech in America, this Irish Calvinist was indicted by an Anglican authority (also exposing an early establishment of religion in New York) and held for two days prior to trial.
Makemie appeared before Cornbury (who called the missionary “a Disturber of Governments”) in the council chamber at Fort Anne, New York, on the afternoon of January 23, 1707. Lord Cornbury (Edward Hyde) charged: “How dare you take upon you to preach in my Government without my License”! Makemie answered that Parliament had granted liberty to preach in 1688 under William and Mary. Cornbury contended that such laws did not extend to the American colonies. Makemie answered that the act of Parliament was not restricted to Great Britain alone, but applied to all her territories; Makemie also produced certificates from courts in Virginia and Maryland that had already recognized his work. When Cornbury argued that ‘all politics is local,’ including rights and penalties, Makemie reminded him and his attorneys that the Act of Toleration was applicable in Scotland, Wales, Barbados, Virginia, and Maryland, and that without express restriction it was also applicable in all “her Majesties Dominions”—unless, of course, New York was not considered under her dominion.
Notwithstanding, Cornbury did not want Makemie or other “Strolling” preachers in his territory. Makemie further argued that strolling Quakers were permitted religious liberty in the colonies, which brought Cornbury’s equal-opportunity-oppressor rejoinder: “I have troubled some of them, and will trouble them more.” When Cornbury revived his charge that Makemie was spreading “pernicious doctrines,” the Ulster missionary answered that the Westminster Confession of Faith was very similar to the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England and challenged “all the Clergy of York to show us any false or pernicious doctrines therein.” Makemie even stated his willingness to subscribe to the Thirty-Nine Articles should that satisfy the Governor.
Earlier Makemie had applied to the Governor to preach in a Dutch Reformed Church in New York and had been denied permission. His speaking in a private home gave rise to the charge of preaching unlawfully. Cornbury reiterated that Makemie was preaching without license, charging him to post bond for his good behavior and to promise not to preach again without licence. Although he disputed any charges against his behavior, Makemie consented to post bond for his good behavior (knowing there were no provable charges), but he refused to post bond to keep silence, promising in Lutheresque words that “if invited and desired by any people, we neither can, nor dare” refuse to preach. Like Luther, Makemie could do no other.
Cornbury then ruled, “Then you must go to Gaol?” Makemie’s answer is instructive.
[I]t will be unaccountable to England, to hear, that Jews, who openly blaspheme the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ, and disown the whole Christian religion; Quakers who disown the Fundamental Doctrines of the Church of England and both Sacraments; Lutherans, and all others, are tolerated in Your Lordships Government; and only we, who have complied, and who are still ready to comply with the Act of Toleration, and are nearest to, and likest the Church of England of any Dissenters, should be hindered, and that only the Government of New-York and the Jersies. This will appear strange indeed.
Cornbury responded that Makemie would have to blame the Queen, to which the defendant answered that he did not blame her Majesty, for she did not limit his speech or free religious expression. At last, Lord Cornbury relented and signed a release for the prisoners, charging both Makemie and John Hampton, however, with court costs. Before leaving, Makemie requested that the Governor’s attorneys produce the law that delimited the Act of Toleration from application in any particular American colony. The attorney for Cornbury produced a copy, and when Makemie offered to pay the attorney for a copy of the specific paragraph that limited the Act of Parliament, the attorney declined and the proceedings came to a close.
MakemieStatueIn a parting shot, Lord Cornbury confessed to Makemie, “You Sir, Know Law.” Makemie was later acquitted,  and free speech and free expression of religion, apart from government’s approval, took a stride forward in the New World. Makemie pioneered religious liberty at great risk, and all who enjoy religious freedom remain in debt to this Scots-Irish son of Calvin.
Upon hearing of Makemie’s eventual (though delayed) release, the esteemed Cotton Mather wrote to his colleague the Rev. Samuel Penhallow on July 8, 1707: “That Brave man, Mr. Makemie, has after a famous trial at N. York, bravely triumphed over the Act of Uniformity, and the other poenal laws for the Church of England, without permitting the matter to come so far as to pleading the act of toleration. He has compelled an acknowledgement that lawes aforesaid, are but local ones and have nothing to do with the Plantations. The Non-Conformist Religion and interest is . . . likely to prevail mightily in the Southern Colonies. I send you two or three of Mr. Makemie’s books to be dispersed. . . .”
In another blow for religious freedom, the next year a Somerset County, Maryland, court approved the certification for a Protestant Dissenter church to be established. By a narrow 3-2 vote of the court, Makemie secured liberty for Presbyterian churches under “an act of parliament made the first year of King William and Queen Mary establishing the liberty of Protestant Dissenters.”
Makemie was also instrumental in laying the groundwork for an Irish priest, William Tennent, to immigrate to America. Tennent would later establish the “Log College,” and one of its students, the Rev. Samuel Finley, started the West Nottingham Academy in 1741. These schools, much like Calvin’s Academy in Geneva, became the proving grounds of the American republic. From this one Academy came founders of four colleges, two U. S. representatives, one senator, two members of the Continental Congress, and two signatories of the Declaration of Independence (Benjamin Rush and Richard Stockton).  Samuel Finley went on to become president of the College of New Jersey (later Princeton) in 1761.
This developing American Calvinism, far from the modern caricature as a narrow or severe sect, was a boost to personal freedom and civil discourse in its heyday. The first American Presbyterian pastor helped entrench the right to free expression and free worship by appealing to the principles of the Glorious Revolution. A tidal wave of Calvinistic thinking came to America through immigrants like Makemie and continued to radiate outward.
Images :
1. The trial of Francis Makemie
2. Commemorative statue of Francis Makemie

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