Wednesday, September 20, 2017

OUR PLAN TO PROTECT TRADITIONAL MARRIAGE

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Coalition for Marriage
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OUR PLAN TO PROTECT TRADITIONAL MARRIAGE

Dear marriage supporter,
It is a pleasure to write to you for the first time as the Coalition for Marriage’s new Campaign Director.
The war on traditional marriage is being waged as fiercely as ever in Parliament and over the airwaves.
To combat this we have been working flat out over the summer to ensure that the Coalition is equipped to meet the challenges of the year ahead.

Public advocacy for traditional marriage

My priority for the coming months is ensuring that Coalition for Marriage is a vocal and unapologetic voice for truth in our national life.
Our 2017/18 brochure sets out our campaign priorities for the coming year. It explains what the immediate challenges are, why they matter and what we can do about them.
Over the coming weeks we will share a number of initiatives which support this. We will also be planning a number of events across the country to meet supporters.
In the meantime I have recorded a video explaining why I believe the Coalition’s work is now more important than ever:
Campaign Director video

A new look website

To support our campaigning we have refreshed the look and feel of our website – c4m.org.uk.
We have also acted on the many requests from our supporters for additional donation options. You can now donate using Apple Pay, if using the Safari browser, or by downloading a standing order form.
You can also contribute by card as before, and a PayPal option will be live on the site by the end of this week.

Please support our new campaigns

Our work is impossible without you. It is your donations and the time you spend writing letters and responding to consultations which keeps C4M going.
If you support our campaign priorities for the year and are able to contribute to the cost of them then we would be deeply grateful. Thank you to all who have supported us to date and I look forward to working with you.
DONATE
Yours sincerely,
Thomas Pascoe
Thomas Pascoe
Campaign Director
Coalition for Marriage (C4M)

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The four ways to look at the E.U.

In recent times nothing has raised political passions in UK as much as Brexit. I observe four kinds of people. The first two have in common their votes are cast on the basis of ideology.

1. Brexiters. I cannot speak for all but I voted Brexit because I have always opposed being ruled by a foreign power which could override our common law heritage. We were undemocratically taken into the Common Market by traitor Heath and the other contemporary parties who lying through their teeth told sit was all about economics, not political involvement. They knew it was a lie and gave the electorate no choice.

2. Remoaners - the ideological remoaners, like Cable, want a re-run of the referendum because they are not democrats. Their basic ideology is for us to be subsumed into a federal E.U.  If you gave me the choice between a federal E.U. and being part of the U.S. I should choose the latter on the basis of a common cultural heritage no/t shared by the E.U. lot.

3. The economic pundits - Brexit is doom and gloom. Trade will suffer. Jobs will be lost. The pound decline. They have their crystal balls and perhaps tarot cards and astrologers with all the accuracy of economists.

4. The indifferent. - The non-voters. I shall ignore them as they ignored the most important vote in my lifetime. They did not speak and now should keep silent.

Most of my family are 1.  A minority are 3 and 4.

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September 20: Massacre of French Huguenots (450th anniv.)


by archivist
Today marks the 451st anniversary of the Massacre of French Huguenots at Fort Caroline on September 20, 1565, a tragedy that occurred on the shores of Florida centuries ago. The Spanish commander had a plaque put up after he was finished with his bloody work explaining why he killed the colonists, which included men, women and children: "Not as Frenchmen, but as Lutherans [Protestants]."
One of those killed in the second phase of the massacre was Admiral Jean Ribault. His last words were to chant Psalm 132, changing the words slightly, "Lord remember the afflictions of your servant Jean. How he swore. . . not to give rest to his eyes, nor slumber to his eyelids, until he found a dwelling place for the mighty God of Jacob."
May we remember the Huguenot sacrifice for Christ's kingdom in America on this September day.

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Monday, September 18, 2017

William Tyndale

Notes for adult Sunday school 17 Sep 17. I may use them for U3A history too.

William Tyndale 
            

    
Read 1Cor13 from 1534… analysis of the Authorised Version ….  shows that Tyndale’s words account for 84% of the New Testament, and for 75.8% of the Old Testament books that he translated. - Brian Moynahan, Book of Fire p.1 This book a thriller.
NT modern reprint to see.  Original 6x`4x11/2”Travel with …
A hell hound in the kennel of the devil - More’s verdict on Tyndale.
Biographies are entwined. Both were pious men martyred for their beliefs but very different characters. One ordained. One punished himself for not being a priest. One was driven into exile relying on the gifts of supporters. One Lord Chancellor, rich and an influential politician with the ear of the king. The other an inept man politically alternatively detested, sought, offered protection by H. One beheaded as a traitor on Tower Green, the king being merciful. The other burned as a heretic in Belgium. One canonised saint, man for all seasons but in reality a hater, persecutor, torturer and burner of protestants. The other recognised by his enemies as a godly scholar, a man who influenced the English language more than anyone else. The greatest Englishman God’s providence.
A number of partial translations had been made from the seventh century onward, but the spread of Wycliffe's Bible in the late 14th century led to the death penalty for anyone found in unlicensed possession of Scripture in English—though translations were available in all other major European languages.

Important Moments in his Life
1491 - 1494  His exact date of birth is unknown. Most likely he was born in Gloucestershire, probably from a family living in or near Stinchcombe. Tyndale's family had moved to Gloucestershire at some point in the 15th century, probably as a result of the Wars of the Roses. The family emigrated from Northumberland via East Anglia
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509, year he married CoA b1485
1506 - 16 began a Bachelor of Arts degree at Magdalen Hall (later Hertford College) of Oxford University
1512 - 20 - B.A.  
1514- 22 He was ordained a sub-deacon by the Bishop of Hereford. Being ordained a sub-deacon was one of several stages towards becoming a priest.
1515 - 23 M.A. and was held to be a man of virtuous disposition, leading an unblemished life.The M.A. allowed him to start studying theology, but the official course did not include the systematic study of Scripture. As Tyndale later complained:’They have ordained that no man shall look on the Scripture, until he be noselled in heathen learning eight or nine years and armed with false principles, with which he is clean shut out of the understanding of the Scripture.’He was a gifted linguist and became fluent over the years in French, Greek, Hebrew, German, Italian, Latin, and Spanish. In London he was ordained as a deacon and then as a priest.  Wolsey cardinal and chancellor and  A of York. 2nd highest man in England, above A o Cantuar.
1516 - 1522 -24-30 Little is known for certain about his life in these years. He may have spent some time at Cambridge University. Also he may have worked as a priest in Gloucestershire at Frampton on Severn and Breadstone. Erasmus greek NT.
1517 and 1521, he went to the University of Cambridge. Erasmus had been the leading teacher of Greek there from August 1511 to January 1512, but not during Tyndale's time at the university.[1517 ML 95 theses He said H was a pig who should be rolled in his own dirt. For H wrote against ML in defence of 7 Sacraments. ™ probable author but Fid. Def received.
1521 - chaplain at the home of Sir John Walsh at Little Sodbury 
1521- tutor to his children . His opinions proved controversial to fellow clergymen, and the next year he was summoned before John Bell, the Chancellor of the Diocese of Worcester, although no formal charges were laid at the time. John Foxe describes an argument with a "learned" but "blasphemous" clergyman which occurred after the harsh meeting with Bell and other church leaders, and near the end of Tyndale's time at Little Sodbury. The clergyman asserted to Tyndale, "We had better be without God's laws than the Pope's." Tyndale responded: "I defy the Pope, and all his laws; and if God spares my life, ere many years, I will cause the boy that driveth the plow to know more of the Scriptures than thou dost! By now it seems likely that he had decided to translate the Bible into English. At this period the Bible was only available in Latin so that it meant little to most people when read in church. Luther German NT.
1523 Tyndale left for London iHe requested help from Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall, a well-known classicist who had praised Erasmus after working together with him on a Greek New Testament. The bishop, however, declined to extend his patronage, telling Tyndale that he had no room for him in his household. Tyndale preached and studied relying on the help of cloth merchant, Humphrey Monmouth
1524 left England and landed on continental Europe, perhaps at Hamburg,possibly travelling on to Wittenberg. He began translating the New Testament at this time, possibly in Wittenberg, 
1525 -At Cologne he completed his translation of the New Testament. He translated from the Greek in which the New Testament had originally been written. Printing began but it seemed likely that he would be arrested and so he fled to Worms.In 1525, publication was interrupted by the impact of anti-Lutheranism. H enamoured of AB b1501 . ML marries K.
1526 At Worms  a free imperial city then in the process of adopting Lutheranism. Published whole NT. [22] More copies were soon printed in Antwerp. The book was smuggled into England and Scotland
Bishop Tunstall, who issued warnings to booksellers and had copies burned in public. Tyndale apparently remained at Worms for about a year. It is not clear exactly when he moved to Antwerp.It is possible that Tyndale intended to carry on his work from Hamburg in about 1529. He revised his New Testament and began translating the Old Testament and writing various treatises.[citation needed]The bishop of London had copies collected up and burned by St. Paul's Cathedral.Those who pirated Tyndale’s work used satirical colophons; one, poking fun at More,  claimed to be ‘Printed in Utopia’;, another claimed that it was, ‘Printed at St Peter’s in Rome cum priveligio apostolico. while a third was ‘printed in Basle by Adam Anonymous’. , Brian Moynahan, Book of Fire, p108 
Church to congregation, Mat 17. Priest to presbyter. Charity to love. Penance to repentance. All hit at RCC doctrine. A compendious introduction, prologue or preface into the epistle of Paul to the Romans
1527 - 1533  -35-41
He wrote a number of books. Some criticised teachings of the church. Others were about books of the Bible. The parable of the wicked mammon
1528 The Obedience of a Christen Man[39] (and how Christen rulers ought to govern. A king is a great benefit be he never so evil. - W Tyndale,The Obedience of a Christen Man in  Brian Moynahan, Book of Fire, p152
Scottish reformation
1530, he wrote The Practyse of Prelates, opposing Henry VIII's planned annulment from Catherine of Aragon in favour of Anne Boleyn on the grounds that it was unscriptural, and that it was a plot by Cardinal Wolsey to get Henry entangled in the papal courts of Pope Clement VII.[3][26] The king's wrath was aimed at Tyndale. Henry asked Emperor Charles V to have the writer apprehended and returned to England, the Emperor responded that formal evidence was required before extradition.[27] Tyndale developed his case in An Answer unto Sir Thomas More's Dialogue.[The five books of Moses [the Pentateuch] Translation (each book with individual title page) Cromwell sent Vaughan to find WT.
1531 The exposition of the first epistle of saint John. The prophet JBilney burned, More tortures p261 beyond law. Jonah . An answer into Sir Thomas More's dialogue. ™ responds with The Confutation Ot Tyndale’s answer, 6 vols,over 500000 words in 18 months.,  H breaks with Rome, head of C o E. H fails to get emperor to extradite T.
1532 Cranmer A o C, Boleyn’s chaplain with secret wife fromGermany.
1533 H m AB. An exposicion upon the. v. vi. vii. chapters of Mathew.The Souper of the Lorde
1534 The New Testament Translation (thoroughly revised). In Antwerp he went to live with an English merchant, Thomas Poyntz, and there he completed a revised version of his translation
1535 More beheaded for treason. He had seen one woman and six priests taken for execution. Tyndale was betrayed by Henry Phillips [29] to the imperial authorities,[30] seized in Antwerp in 1535, and held in the castle of Vilvoorde (Filford) near Brussels. An exposicion upon the. v. vi. vii. chapters of Mathe
1536  He was tried on a charge of heresy and was condemned to be burned to death, despite Thomas Cromwell's intercession on his behalf. 19 May AB beheaded.  After eighteen months in prison, 6 Oct he was taken out to be executed. He was first strangled and then burned. He is supposed to have called out a prayer : 'Lord, open the king of England's eyes', meaning that the king should allow a Bible in English. Dissolution begins. JC Institutes. Within four years, four English translations of the Bible were published in England at the King's behest,[a] including Henry's official Great Bible . All were based on Tyndale's work.[36]








Impact on the English language[edit]
In translating the Bible, Tyndale introduced new words into the English language; many were subsequently used in the King James Bible:
Passover (as the name for the Jewish holiday, Pesach or Pesah)
scapegoat
Coinage of the word atonement (a concatenation of the words 'At One' to describe Christ's work of restoring a good relationship—a reconciliation—between God and people)[41] is also sometimes ascribed to Tyndale.[42][43] However, the word was probably in use by at least 1513, before Tyndale's translation.[44][45] Similarly, sometimes Tyndale is said to have coined the term mercy seat.[46] While it is true that Tyndale introduced the word into English, mercy seat is more accurately a translation of Martin Luther's German Gnadenstuhl.[47]
As well as individual words, Tyndale also coined such familiar phrases as:
my brother's keeper
knock and it shall be opened unto you
a moment in time
fashion not yourselves to the world
seek and ye shall find
ask and it shall be given you
judge not that ye be not judged
the word of God which liveth and lasteth forever
let there be light
the salt of the earth
a law unto themselves
it came to pass
the signs of the times
filthy lucre
the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak (which is like Luther's translation of Matthew 26,41: der Geist ist willig, aber das Fleisch ist schwach; Wyclif for example translated it with: for the spirit is ready, but the flesh is sick.)
live, move and have our being
Controversy over new words and phrases[edit]
The hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church did not approve of some of the words and phrases introduced by Tyndale, such as "overseer", where it would have been understood as "bishop", "elder" for "priest", and "love" rather than "charity". Tyndale, citing Erasmus, contended that the Greek New Testament did not support the traditional Roman Catholic readings. More controversially, Tyndale translated the Greek "ekklesia", (literally "called out ones"[48]) as "congregation" rather than "church".[49] It has been asserted this translation choice "was a direct threat to the Church's ancient—but so Tyndale here made clear, non-scriptural—claim to be the body of Christ on earth. To change these words was to strip the Church hierarchy of its pretensions to be Christ's terrestrial representative, and to award this honour to individual worshippers who made up each congregation."[49]
Contention from Roman Catholics came not only from real or perceived errors in translation but also a fear of the erosion of their social power if Christians could read the Bible in their own language. "The Pope's dogma is bloody", Tyndale wrote in The Obedience of a Christian Man.[50] Thomas More (since 1935 in the Roman Catholic Church, Saint Thomas More) commented that searching for errors in the Tyndale Bible was similar to searching for water in the sea, and charged Tyndale's translation of The Obedience of a Christian Man with having about a thousand falsely translated errors. Bishop Tunstall of London declared that there were upwards of 2,000 errors in Tyndale's Bible, having already in 1523 denied Tyndale the permission required under the Constitutions of Oxford (1409), which were still in force, to translate the Bible into English.
In response to allegations of inaccuracies in his translation in the New Testament, Tyndale in the Prologue to his 1525 translation wrote that he never intentionally altered or misrepresented any of the Bible, but that he had sought to "interpret the sense of the scripture and the meaning of the spirit."[49]
While translating, Tyndale followed Erasmus' (1522) Greek edition of the New Testament. In his preface to his 1534 New Testament ("WT unto the Reader"), he not only goes into some detail about the Greek tenses but also points out that there is often a Hebrew idiom underlying the Greek.[51] The Tyndale Society adduces much further evidence to show that his translations were made directly from the original Hebrew and Greek sources he had at his disposal. For example, the Prolegomena in Mombert's William Tyndale's Five Books of Moses show that Tyndale's Pentateuch is a translation of the Hebrew original. His translation also drew on the Latin Vulgate and Luther's 1521 September Testament.[49]
Of the first (1526) edition of Tyndale's New Testament only three copies survive. The only complete copy is part of the Bible Collection of Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart. The copy of the British Library is almost complete, lacking only the title page and list of contents. Another rarity is Tyndale's Pentateuch, of which only nine remain.
Impact on the English Bible
The translators of the Revised Standard Version in the 1940s noted that Tyndale's translation inspired the translations that followed, including the Great Bible of 1539, the Geneva Bible of 1560, the Bishops' Bible of 1568, the Douay-Rheims Bible of 1582–1609, and the King James Version of 1611, of which the RSV translators noted: "It [the KJV] kept felicitous phrases and apt expressions, from whatever source, which had stood the test of public usage. It owed most, especially in the New Testament, to Tyndale". Many scholars today believe that such is the case. Moynahan writes: "A complete analysis of the Authorised Version, known down the generations as "the AV" or "the King James" was made in 1998. It shows that Tyndale's words account for 84% of the New Testament and for 75.8% of the Old Testament books that he translated."[52] Joan Bridgman makes the comment in the Contemporary Review that, "He [Tyndale] is the mainly unrecognised translator of the most influential book in the world. Although the Authorised King James Version is ostensibly the production of a learned committee of churchmen, it is mostly cribbed from Tyndale with some reworking of his translation.”
1560 Exiles publish Geneva bible, standard for a century. With notes etc.- Breeches bible.

    
Read 1Cor13 from 1534… analysis of the Authorised Version ….  shows that Tyndale’s words account for 84% of the New Testament, and for 75.8% of the Old Testament books that he translated. - Brian Moynahan, Book of Fire p.1 This book a thriller.
NT modern reprint to see.  Original 6x`4x11/2”Travel with …
A hell hound in the kennel of the devil - More’s verdict on Tyndale another biographies are entwined. Both were pious men martyred for their beliefs but very different characters. One ordained. One punished himself for not being a priest. One was driven into exile relying on the gifts of supporters. One Lord Chancellor, rich and an influential politician with the ear of the king. The other an inept man politically alternatively detested, sought, offered protection by H. One beheaded as a traitor on Tower Green, the king being merciful. The other burned as a heretic in Belgium. One canonised saint, man for all seasons but in reality a hater, persecutor, torturer and burner of protestants. The other recognised by his enemies as a godly scholar, a man who influenced the English language more than anyone else. The greatest Englishman God’s providence.
A number of partial translations had been made from the seventh century onward, but the spread of Wycliffe's Bible in the late 14th century led to the death penalty for anyone found in unlicensed possession of Scripture in English—though translations were available in all other major European languages.

Important Moments in his Life
1491 - 1494  His exact date of birth is unknown. Most likely he was born in Gloucestershire, probably from a family living in or near Stinchcombe. Tyndale's family had moved to Gloucestershire at some point in the 15th century, probably as a result of the Wars of the Roses. The family emigrated from Northumberland via East Anglia
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509, year he married CoA b1485
1506 - 16 began a Bachelor of Arts degree at Magdalen Hall (later Hertford College) of Oxford University
1512 - 20 - B.A.  
1514- 22 He was ordained a sub-deacon by the Bishop of Hereford. Being ordained a sub-deacon was one of several stages towards becoming a priest.
1515 - 23 M.A. and was held to be a man of virtuous disposition, leading an unblemished life.The M.A. allowed him to start studying theology, but the official course did not include the systematic study of Scripture. As Tyndale later complained:’They have ordained that no man shall look on the Scripture, until he be noselled in heathen learning eight or nine years and armed with false principles, with which he is clean shut out of the understanding of the Scripture.’He was a gifted linguist and became fluent over the years in French, Greek, Hebrew, German, Italian, Latin, and Spanish. In London he was ordained as a deacon and then as a priest.  Wolsey cardinal and chancellor and  A of York. 2nd highest man in England, above A o Cantuar.
1516 - 1522 -24-30 Little is known for certain about his life in these years. He may have spent some time at Cambridge University. Also he may have worked as a priest in Gloucestershire at Frampton on Severn and Breadstone. Erasmus greek NT.
1517 and 1521, he went to the University of Cambridge. Erasmus had been the leading teacher of Greek there from August 1511 to January 1512, but not during Tyndale's time at the university.[1517 ML 95 theses He said H was a pig who should be rolled in his own dirt. For H wrote against ML in defence of 7 Sacraments. ™ probable author but Fid. Def received.
1521 - chaplain at the home of Sir John Walsh at Little Sodbury 
1521- tutor to his children . His opinions proved controversial to fellow clergymen, and the next year he was summoned before John Bell, the Chancellor of the Diocese of Worcester, although no formal charges were laid at the time. John Foxe describes an argument with a "learned" but "blasphemous" clergyman which occurred after the harsh meeting with Bell and other church leaders, and near the end of Tyndale's time at Little Sodbury. The clergyman asserted to Tyndale, "We had better be without God's laws than the Pope's." Tyndale responded: "I defy the Pope, and all his laws; and if God spares my life, ere many years, I will cause the boy that driveth the plow to know more of the Scriptures than thou dost! By now it seems likely that he had decided to translate the Bible into English. At this period the Bible was only available in Latin so that it meant little to most people when read in church. Luther German NT.
1523 Tyndale left for London iHe requested help from Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall, a well-known classicist who had praised Erasmus after working together with him on a Greek New Testament. The bishop, however, declined to extend his patronage, telling Tyndale that he had no room for him in his household. Tyndale preached and studied relying on the help of cloth merchant, Humphrey Monmouth
1524 left England and landed on continental Europe, perhaps at Hamburg,possibly travelling on to Wittenberg. He began translating the New Testament at this time, possibly in Wittenberg, 
1525 -At Cologne he completed his translation of the New Testament. He translated from the Greek in which the New Testament had originally been written. Printing began but it seemed likely that he would be arrested and so he fled to Worms.In 1525, publication was interrupted by the impact of anti-Lutheranism. H enamoured of AB b1501 . ML marries K.
1526 At Worms  a free imperial city then in the process of adopting Lutheranism. Published whole NT. [22] More copies were soon printed in Antwerp. The book was smuggled into England and Scotland
Bishop Tunstall, who issued warnings to booksellers and had copies burned in public. Tyndale apparently remained at Worms for about a year. It is not clear exactly when he moved to Antwerp.It is possible that Tyndale intended to carry on his work from Hamburg in about 1529. He revised his New Testament and began translating the Old Testament and writing various treatises.[citation needed]The bishop of London had copies collected up and burned by St. Paul's Cathedral.Those who pirated Tyndale’s work used satirical colophons; one, poking fun at More,  claimed to be ‘Printed in Utopia’;, another claimed that it was, ‘Printed at St Peter’s in Rome cum priveligio apostolico. while a third was ‘printed in Basle by Adam Anonymous’. , Brian Moynahan, Book of Fire, p108 
Church to congregation, Mat 17. Priest to presbyter. Charity to love. Penance to repentance. All hit at RCC doctrine. A compendious introduction, prologue or preface into the epistle of Paul to the Romans
1527 - 1533  -35-41
He wrote a number of books. Some criticised teachings of the church. Others were about books of the Bible. The parable of the wicked mammon
1528 The Obedience of a Christen Man[39] (and how Christen rulers ought to govern. A king is a great benefit be he never so evil. - W Tyndale,The Obedience of a Christen Man in  Brian Moynahan, Book of Fire, p152
Scottish reformation
1530, he wrote The Practyse of Prelates, opposing Henry VIII's planned annulment from Catherine of Aragon in favour of Anne Boleyn on the grounds that it was unscriptural, and that it was a plot by Cardinal Wolsey to get Henry entangled in the papal courts of Pope Clement VII.[3][26] The king's wrath was aimed at Tyndale. Henry asked Emperor Charles V to have the writer apprehended and returned to England, the Emperor responded that formal evidence was required before extradition.[27] Tyndale developed his case in An Answer unto Sir Thomas More's Dialogue.[The five books of Moses [the Pentateuch] Translation (each book with individual title page) Cromwell sent Vaughan to find WT.
1531 The exposition of the first epistle of saint John. The prophet JBilney burned, More tortures p261 beyond law. Jonah . An answer into Sir Thomas More's dialogue. ™ responds with The Confutation Ot Tyndale’s answer, 6 vols,over 500000 words in 18 months.,  H breaks with Rome, head of C o E. H fails to get emperor to extradite T.
1532 Cranmer A o C, Boleyn’s chaplain with secret wife fromGermany.
1533 H m AB. An exposicion upon the. v. vi. vii. chapters of Mathew.The Souper of the Lorde
1534 The New Testament Translation (thoroughly revised). In Antwerp he went to live with an English merchant, Thomas Poyntz, and there he completed a revised version of his translation
1535 More beheaded for treason. He had seen one woman and six priests taken for execution. Tyndale was betrayed by Henry Phillips [29] to the imperial authorities,[30] seized in Antwerp in 1535, and held in the castle of Vilvoorde (Filford) near Brussels. An exposicion upon the. v. vi. vii. chapters of Mathe
1536  He was tried on a charge of heresy and was condemned to be burned to death, despite Thomas Cromwell's intercession on his behalf. 19 May AB beheaded.  After eighteen months in prison, 6 Oct he was taken out to be executed. He was first strangled and then burned. He is supposed to have called out a prayer : 'Lord, open the king of England's eyes', meaning that the king should allow a Bible in English. Dissolution begins. JC Institutes. Within four years, four English translations of the Bible were published in England at the King's behest,[a] including Henry's official Great Bible . All were based on Tyndale's work.[36]








Impact on the English language[edit]
In translating the Bible, Tyndale introduced new words into the English language; many were subsequently used in the King James Bible:
Passover (as the name for the Jewish holiday, Pesach or Pesah)
scapegoat
Coinage of the word atonement (a concatenation of the words 'At One' to describe Christ's work of restoring a good relationship—a reconciliation—between God and people)[41] is also sometimes ascribed to Tyndale.[42][43] However, the word was probably in use by at least 1513, before Tyndale's translation.[44][45] Similarly, sometimes Tyndale is said to have coined the term mercy seat.[46] While it is true that Tyndale introduced the word into English, mercy seat is more accurately a translation of Martin Luther's German Gnadenstuhl.[47]
As well as individual words, Tyndale also coined such familiar phrases as:
my brother's keeper
knock and it shall be opened unto you
a moment in time
fashion not yourselves to the world
seek and ye shall find
ask and it shall be given you
judge not that ye be not judged
the word of God which liveth and lasteth forever
let there be light
the salt of the earth
a law unto themselves
it came to pass
the signs of the times
filthy lucre
the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak (which is like Luther's translation of Matthew 26,41: der Geist ist willig, aber das Fleisch ist schwach; Wyclif for example translated it with: for the spirit is ready, but the flesh is sick.)
live, move and have our being
Controversy over new words and phrases[edit]
The hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church did not approve of some of the words and phrases introduced by Tyndale, such as "overseer", where it would have been understood as "bishop", "elder" for "priest", and "love" rather than "charity". Tyndale, citing Erasmus, contended that the Greek New Testament did not support the traditional Roman Catholic readings. More controversially, Tyndale translated the Greek "ekklesia", (literally "called out ones"[48]) as "congregation" rather than "church".[49] It has been asserted this translation choice "was a direct threat to the Church's ancient—but so Tyndale here made clear, non-scriptural—claim to be the body of Christ on earth. To change these words was to strip the Church hierarchy of its pretensions to be Christ's terrestrial representative, and to award this honour to individual worshippers who made up each congregation."[49]
Contention from Roman Catholics came not only from real or perceived errors in translation but also a fear of the erosion of their social power if Christians could read the Bible in their own language. "The Pope's dogma is bloody", Tyndale wrote in The Obedience of a Christian Man.[50] Thomas More (since 1935 in the Roman Catholic Church, Saint Thomas More) commented that searching for errors in the Tyndale Bible was similar to searching for water in the sea, and charged Tyndale's translation of The Obedience of a Christian Man with having about a thousand falsely translated errors. Bishop Tunstall of London declared that there were upwards of 2,000 errors in Tyndale's Bible, having already in 1523 denied Tyndale the permission required under the Constitutions of Oxford (1409), which were still in force, to translate the Bible into English.
In response to allegations of inaccuracies in his translation in the New Testament, Tyndale in the Prologue to his 1525 translation wrote that he never intentionally altered or misrepresented any of the Bible, but that he had sought to "interpret the sense of the scripture and the meaning of the spirit."[49]
While translating, Tyndale followed Erasmus' (1522) Greek edition of the New Testament. In his preface to his 1534 New Testament ("WT unto the Reader"), he not only goes into some detail about the Greek tenses but also points out that there is often a Hebrew idiom underlying the Greek.[51] The Tyndale Society adduces much further evidence to show that his translations were made directly from the original Hebrew and Greek sources he had at his disposal. For example, the Prolegomena in Mombert's William Tyndale's Five Books of Moses show that Tyndale's Pentateuch is a translation of the Hebrew original. His translation also drew on the Latin Vulgate and Luther's 1521 September Testament.[49]
Of the first (1526) edition of Tyndale's New Testament only three copies survive. The only complete copy is part of the Bible Collection of Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart. The copy of the British Library is almost complete, lacking only the title page and list of contents. Another rarity is Tyndale's Pentateuch, of which only nine remain.
Impact on the English Bible
The translators of the Revised Standard Version in the 1940s noted that Tyndale's translation inspired the translations that followed, including the Great Bible of 1539, the Geneva Bible of 1560, the Bishops' Bible of 1568, the Douay-Rheims Bible of 1582–1609, and the King James Version of 1611, of which the RSV translators noted: "It [the KJV] kept felicitous phrases and apt expressions, from whatever source, which had stood the test of public usage. It owed most, especially in the New Testament, to Tyndale". Many scholars today believe that such is the case. Moynahan writes: "A complete analysis of the Authorised Version, known down the generations as "the AV" or "the King James" was made in 1998. It shows that Tyndale's words account for 84% of the New Testament and for 75.8% of the Old Testament books that he translated."[52] Joan Bridgman makes the comment in the Contemporary Review that, "He [Tyndale] is the mainly unrecognised translator of the most influential book in the world. Although the Authorised King James Version is ostensibly the production of a learned committee of churchmen, it is mostly cribbed from Tyndale with some reworking of his translation.”
1560 Exiles publish Geneva bible, standard for a century. With notes etc.- Breeches bible.


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